AJUR Volume 20 Issue 2 (September 2023)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 20 Issue 2 (September 2023) or https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2023.082

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. An Exploratory Study on Student-Athlete Mental Health: Personal and Perceived Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior

Emma McCabe, Sarah DeSordi, Aaron Piepmeier, & Eric Hall


ABSTRACT: Student-athletes are more likely to develop mental health problems than the general population. In addition to schoolwork, social networks, family ties, and financial obligations, collegiate student-athletes are required to attend practices, travel for games, attend athletic events, and perform extracurricular duties. The addition of possible injury, overtraining, burnout, scrutiny from the public and/or the media, and consistent pressure to perform results in athletes playing through both physical injuries and mental health problems. Despite the high number of athletes who report needing mental health support, fewer than half seek out mental health services. Research has identified stigma as one of the largest barriers to mental health help-seeking behavior (HSB). Help-seeking behavior has rarely been studied in relation to the larger body of work on mental health stigma in sport. The purpose of this study was to observe and describe student-athletes’ perceived stigma (e.g., what others think) and personal stigma (e.g., what the individual thinks) in relation to HSB. A sample of n = 20 athletes completed an online Qualtrics Survey, which included Link’s Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale, Mental Health Literacy Scale, Self-Stigma of Seeking Help Scale, Help Seeking Questionnaire, and Student-Athlete Role Behaviors Questionnaire. Results from this study may help develop mental health interventions to improve student-athlete HSB. KEYWORDS: Mental Health; Student-Athlete; Stigma; Help-Seeking Behavior; NCAA; PDDS; MHLS; SSOSH; HSQ; SRBQ

p.13. The Effect of Coastline Concavity on Maximum Storm Surge Height along the US Gulf Coast

Kayleigh Addington & Stephanie Zick


ABSTRACT: Storm surge is the most dangerous component of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs). The growing coastal population highlights the importance of research regarding the atmospheric and geographic factors influencing the maximum storm surge height (MSSH). To date, few studies have investigated the influence of coastline concavity. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that TCs making landfall on a concave coastline will have a higher MSSH than TCs making landfall on a convex coastline. The Colorado State University extended best track dataset includes the radius of 34 kt winds (R34), landfall minimum mean sea level pressure (MSLP), landfall maximum sustained winds, and forward speed of TCs. The storm surge database for the US Gulf Coast provides the location and MSSH for TCs impacting the U.S. Gulf Coast. From this, eleven TCs that meet specific criteria and represent the larger population of Atlantic TCs are selected. The adjusted degree of coastline concavity (ADoC) is calculated for each TC using the law of cosines and 50, 100, and 200 km radius buffers around the point of MSSH. A Mann Whitney U test does not indicate any significant differences between the mean MSSH of TCs making landfall on each coastline type. Additionally, results from a simple linear regression F-test suggest that none of the included parameters have a significant influence on MSSH despite the findings of previous research. Still, the Spearman’s Rho correlation values suggest a weak positive relationship between the ADoC and MSSH. This relationship is significant at the 100 and 200 km buffers, which is consistent with the hypothesis. Results are limited by the small sample size. Future research should use a larger dataset and investigate how each individual storm characteristic affects MSSH. KEYWORDS: Tropical Cyclones; Hurricanes; Storm Surge; Coastal Geography; Coastline Concavity; Gulf of Mexico; Law of Cosines

p.29. Validation of a Computationally Efficient Model of the Mu-Opioid Receptor

Allison Barkdull, Lexin Chen, Akash Mathavan, Karina Martinez-Mayorga, & Coray M. Colina


ABSTRACT: The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is a transmembrane protein and the primary target for pain-modulating drugs. Opioid drugs come with detrimental side-effects such as physical dependence and addiction. However, recent studies show that understanding structural properties and dynamics of MOR may aid in the design of opioid drugs with reduced side-effects. Molecular dynamics simulations allow researchers to study changes in protein conformation at an atomistic level. However, modeling systems including MOR embedded in a lipid bilayer can be computationally expensive. This study evaluates a modeling approach that uses harmonic restraints on the transmembrane regions of MOR to model the rigidity of the lipid bilayer without explicitly simulating lipid molecules, reducing the number of atoms in the simulation. The proposed model allows MOR to be simulated 49% faster than a simulation explicitly including the lipid bilayer. To assess the accuracy of the proposed model, simulations were performed of MOR in a lipid bilayer, the free MOR in water and MOR in water with harmonic restraints applied to all transmembrane residues using NAMD 3.0 alpha and the CHARMM36 force field. Dynamic properties of MOR were shown to be different in each system, with the free MOR having a higher root mean square deviation (RMSD) than MOR with an explicitly modeled lipid bilayer. The systems with harmonic restraint constants of 0.001 kcal/mol/Å2 applied to the transmembrane residues had RMSD values comparable to those in an explicitly modeled lipid bilayer. This study demonstrates that using restraints on the transmembrane residues of MOR is a feasible way of modeling the ligand-free receptor with reduced computational costs. This model could allow the dynamics of MOR in a lipid bilayer environment to be studied more efficiently. KEYWORDS: Molecular Dynamics; Atomistic Simulations; Computational Modeling; Mu-Opioid Receptor; G-Protein Coupled Receptor; Lipid Bilayer, Opioid, Transmembrane Protein

p.45. A Review of Models on Direct Evaporative Cooling

Michael Wilkins & Nelson Fumo


ABSTRACT: Direct evaporative cooling (DEC) is a technology that is continuously expanding into different areas of study. The foundation of this process has been built through expansive research efforts and physical experimental data. The ability to accurately model and predict the performance of DEC systems allows the energy-efficient process to gain traction in HVAC applications, however, the inconsistencies present among research efforts created discontinuities in the reproduction of a system. By reviewing current literature, the discrepancies in the defining methodologies of how DEC systems are defined and predicted can provide insight to future research. This review depicts the different approaches taken in recent research to define the equations that govern the thermodynamic processes, the different materials used in the process, and the models used to predict the performance of DEC systems. By identifying the most common practices in current research, the gaps in literature can be recognized and overcome in further efforts. KEYWORDS: Direct Evaporative Cooling; Evaporative Cooler; Evaporative Cooling Media; HVAC; Cooling Effectiveness

p.57. Semantic Interpretations of Ditransitive Constructions in English

Marcella Jurotich


ABSTRACT: This study addresses claims made by two theories—the Alternative Projection and Verb Sensitive approaches—regarding an interpretation of possession attributed to certain ditransitive constructions. The Alternative Projection approach argues that an interpretation of possession is only available in the double object (DO) pattern expressed by English ditransitive verbs (1a) and is not available in the prepositional (PP) pattern (1b). The Verb Sensitive approach argues that this possession interpretation is either available for both the DO and PP patterns, or for neither pattern, depending on the class of ditransitive verb with which the patterns occur. (1a) The salesperson gave the young farmer the grain mixture. (1b) The salesperson gave the grain mixture to the young farmer. Both approaches posit a possession interpretation of the DO pattern across all ditransitive verbs. This study tests to what degree native English speakers interpret a meaning of possession from the DO and PP patterns through an online survey with 88 participants. Ditransitive verbs from five semantic classes are analyzed to determine if the interpretation of possession varies based on use of the DO or PP pattern (Alternative Projection) or by the semantic class of the verb (Verb Sensitive). The results do not support the Alternative Projection approach. The results suggest partial support for the Verb Sensitive approach, as semantic classes do not entirely follow the pattern predicted by this approach.  Further, judgements reported in this study contradict some judgements reported in the literature, highlighting the importance of quantitative studies in evaluating theoretical claims. KEYWORDS: Ditransitives in English; Ditransitive Verbs; Survey; the Dative Alternation; Semantics; Verb Semantics; Alternative Projection approach; Verb Sensitive approach

p.69. Are Wrist-based Heart Rate Monitors a Valid Tool for Fitness Professionals to Measure Training Intensity During Exercise Classes?

Korey Little, John C. Sieverdes, D. David Thomas, M. Blake Lineberger, Daniel B. Bornsteind, Marco Bergamine, & Wesley D. Dudgeon


ABSTRACT: This article aims to inform personal trainers and group fitness coaches about the validity and utility of wrist-located heart rate (HR) monitors compared to chest-located HR monitors for training purposes. HR from four wrist-based optical sensor HR products (Fitbit Charge HR, Garmin Vivosmart HR, Apple Watch series 1, Mio Fuse) were compared against a Polar H7 chest strap & RS800cx receiver during nine activities. Two researchers visually observed HR during a protocol incorporating resting, standing, a grocery bag carry, and a 6-stage cycle ergometer protocol that reached maximal HR. Pearson’s r and interclass correlations (ICC) in the sample (n=45, mean age=20.22 [SD 2.32]) resulted in the following: Mio Fuse r=.93, ICC=.97; Apple Watch 1 r=.91, ICC=.95; Fitbit Charge HR r=.83, ICC=.91; and Garmin Vivosmart HR r=.74, ICC=.85 (all p’s <.001). Bland-Altman plots showed the lowest bias for the Mio (-3.30 bpm), followed by the Apple Watch (-2.82 (SD:14.6) bpm), Garmin (-2.99 (SD:23.9) bpm) with Fitbit having the highest bias (-8.13 (SD:20.6) bpm). No drift in bias was found for any device in successive HR categories (all p’s >.09). Wrist-based HR monitors were deemed acceptable for fitness classes, though caution should be taken when interpreting any singular visually observed measurement point. KEYWORDS: Smartwatch; Heart Rate Monitoring; Fitness; Fitness Watch; Validity; Exercise; Cycle Ergometer; Training; Intensity

p.79. Retributive Attitudes and Perceptions of Police Use of Excessive Force

Amelia Collins, Sherah L. Basham, & Rick Dierenfeldt


ABSTRACT: Public opinions of police use of force vary widely. Previous studies, however, have framed their examinations around the factors that influence support of police use of force in general, as compared to a focus on excessive force. This study utilized linear regression to examine the relationship between perceptions of police use of excessive force and retributive attitudes. The study employed a sample of 5,527 respondents from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2020 Time Series Survey. Findings indicated that respondents’ perceptions of the frequency of police use of excessive force depend on their retributive attitudes. The more retributive one’s attitude, the less often they perceived the police to use too much force. Similarly, the more conservative one’s political ideology, the less frequently they perceived police used excessive force. Perceptions of police excessive force also vary across demographics. KEYWORDS: Retributiveness; Death Penalty; Police Use of Force; Police Excessive Force

p.87. College Canines: Investigating the Behavioral and Physiological Impacts of Various College-Housing Environments on Companion Dogs

Kaitlyn Willgohs, Jenna Williams, Isabella Crisostomo, Katherine Keck, Crystal Young-Erdos, & Lauren Highfill


ABSTRACT: Companion animals are becoming a more familiar sight on college campuses, and they are often viewed as an essential element of wellness by students and institutions of higher education. While previous studies have investigated the behavioral and physiological impacts of bringing a pet to campus on the owners, impacts on the pets themselves have yet to be explored. Previous studies do suggest, however, that when dogs are left alone, they display more anxiety-related behaviors such as barking, destruction, lip-licking, body shaking, and higher levels of alertness. The present study investigated the difference in anxiety-related behaviors between on-campus dwelling dogs (n = 18) and off-campus dwelling dogs (n = 12) when exposed to a novel environment, and the physiological baseline of the dogs. Specifically, a saliva sample was collected from each dog before they were placed into a novel room for three minutes and their behavior was coded. Overall, there were no significant differences found between the two groups in either the anxiety-related behaviors observed or salivary cortisol levels. The implications of our findings for campus dogs will be discussed. KEYWORDS: Companion Animals; Dogs; Behavior; Cortisol; Higher Education; Dog Welfare; Service Animals; Animal-Assisted Interventions; Student Mental Health

AJUR Volume 18 Issue 2 (September 2021)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 18 Issue 2 (September 2021)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. On Packing Thirteen Points in an Equilateral Triangle
Natalie Tedeschi
ABSTRACT: The conversation of how to maximize the minimum distance between points – or, equivalently, pack congruent circles- in an equilateral triangle began by Oler in the 1960s. In a 1993 paper, Melissen proved the optimal placements of 4 through 12 points in an equilateral triangle using only partitions and direct applications of Dirichlet’s pigeon-hole principle. In the same paper, he proposed his conjectured optimal arrangements for 13, 14, 17, and 19 points in an equilateral triangle. In 1997, Payan proved Melissen’s conjecture for the arrangement of fourteen points; and, in September 2020, Joos proved Melissen’s conjecture for the optimal arrangement of thirteen points. These proofs completed the optimal arrangements of up to and including fifteen points in an equilateral triangle. Unlike Melissen’s proofs, however, Joos’s proof for the optimal arrangement of thirteen points in an equilateral triangle requires continuous functions and calculus. I propose that it is possible to continue Melissen’s line of reasoning, and complete an entirely discrete proof of Joos’s Theorem for the optimal arrangement of thirteen points in an equilateral triangle. In this paper, we make progress towards such a proof. We prove discretely that if either of two points is fixed, Joos’s Theorem optimally places the remaining twelve.
KEYWORDS: optimization; packing; equilateral triangle; distance; circles; points; thirteen; maximize

p.13. An Unbiased Mineral Compositional Analysis Technique for Circumstellar Disks
Yung Kipreos & Inseok Song
ABSTRACT: A circumstellar disk that surrounds a star is composed of gas, dust, and rocky objects that are in orbit around it. Around infant stars, this disk can act as a source of material that can be used to form planetesimals, which can then accrete more material and form into planets. Studying the mineral composition of these disks can provide insight into the processes that created our solar system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mineral composition of these disks by using a newly created python package, Min-CaLM. This package determines the relative mineral abundance within a disk by using a linear regression technique called non-negative least square minimization. The circumstellar disks that are capable of undergoing compositional analysis must have a spectrum with both a detectable mid-infrared excess and prominent silicate features. From our sample, there are only eight debris disks that qualify to be candidates for the Min-CaLM program. The mineral compositions calculated by Min-CaLM are then compared to the Tholen asteroid classification scheme. HD 23514, HD 105234, HD 15407A, BD+20 307, HD 69830, and HD 172555 are found to have a compositions similar to that expected for C-type asteroids, TYC 9410-532-1 resembles the composition of S-type asteroids, and HD 100546 resembles D-type asteroids. Min-CaLM also calculates the mineral compositions of the comets Tempel 1 and Hale-Bopp, and they are used as a comparison between the material in our early solar system and the debris disk compositions.
KEYWORDS: Debris disk; Mineral; Composition; Analysis; Asteroid; Circumstellar; Spectroscopy; Python

p.29. Do Warmups Predict Pole Vault Competition Performance?
Alex Peskin
ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between pole vault warmup and competition performance in a sample of 16 collegiate vaulters over 60 observations. Pole vault athletes are given time to warm up in the same area that the competition will take place. This prompted investigation into whether better warmup performance could indicate better familiarity with the performance environment, and whether this could translate to the competition. The number of warmup vaults taken was also considered. Participants were observed during multiple warmup periods and data was collected on warmup performance. The findings indicate a significant correlation between instances in which participants displayed their best warmup scores and their best competition performances, likewise with their worst. Also, participants who took more warmup vaults performed significantly better on average. Athletes and coaches should consider implementing warmup practices that emphasize familiarizing oneself with their performance environment.
KEYWORDS: Pole Vault; Track and Field; Warmups; Warmup Performance; Competition Performance; Performance Environment; Nested Task; Task Constraints

p.35. A Narrative Literature Review of the Psychological Hindrances Affecting Return to Sport After Injuries
Ashley Sweeney, Stephanie M. Swanberg, & Suzan Kamel-ElSayed
ABSTRACT: After different sports injuries, athletes may experience various psychological emotions in response to such injuries, which could lead an athlete to feel stressed. These emotions include anger, fear, frustration, anxiety, and depression which may lead to lack of confidence in returning to their sport and/or fear of sustaining a new injury. This narrative review aims to determine the possible psychological hindrances present when an athlete is planning on returning to sport after injury to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or after sustaining a concussion. The synthesized information for this review has been collected from researching the databases PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar using search terms including “return to sport”, “ACL injury”, “concussion”, and “psychology”. Journal articles needed to be in English and published in the years 2009-2019; books and unpublished abstracts were excluded. A total of 42studies were included and analyzed using deductive coding to organize and synthesize relevant articles into themes. The review summarizes the shared common and the different psychological hindrances that may be found in athletes after an ACL injury or concussion. Shared psychological characteristics for returning to sport following either an ACL injury or concussion included fear, self-esteem, control, anxiety, stress, recovery, and social support. Discovering the common and unique psychological barriers which may affect the injured athletes from returning to sport can help educate athletes’ families, coaches, and healthcare professionals, as well as promote discussions for the future to help athletes feel more secure in their return to their respective sport.
KEYWORDS: ACL Injuries; Concussions; Sport Injuries; Athletes; Narrative Literature Review; Psychological Hindrances; Psychological Characteristics; Return to Sport; Psychology

AJUR Volume 18 Issue 1 (June 2021)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 18 Issue 1 (June 2021)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p3. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of Alanine Racemase from Enterococcus faecium by Kinetic and Computational Studies
Arie Van Wieren*, Emma Bouchard, & Sudipta Majumdar
ABSTRACT: The surge in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)strains poses a serious threat to public and clinical health. VRE strains are the leading cause of multi-drug resistant enterococcal infections and are commonly acquired from medical devices. Therefore, it is essential to discover new antibacterial targets and drugs for this pathogen. Alanine racemase could be a valuable drug target due to its crucial role in E. faecium survival. Alr from E. faecium (EF_Alr) was heterologously produced and purified from E. coli., and the steady-state kinetic constants were determined at different pH values. Using a coupled reaction with L-alanine dehydrogenase, rate of production of NADH was measured at 340 nm to observe EF_Alr activity in the D- to L-alanine direction. The highest catalytic efficiency, 8.61 ± 0.5 s-1 mM-1, was found at pH 9. Additionally, the tentative active site residues, Lys40 and Tyr268, for the alanine racemization reaction were assigned by homology modeling and sequence comparison studies. Using UCSF Chimera, the structure of the EF_Alr homology model was superimposed and compared to the crystal structure of Alr from E. faecalis.
KEYWORDS: Alanine Racemase; Enterococcus faecium; Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci; Homology Modeling; pH Optimum; Kinetic Characterization; SWISS-MODEL Server; Steady-State Kinetics

p.13 Is Play Sexually Dimorphic in the Polygamous Squirrel Monkey?
Seta Aghababian, Anita Stone, & Christopher Brown
ABSTRACT: Play behavior is widespread in juvenile mammals and may be a mechanism for practicing skills needed in adulthood. In mammals characterized by strong adult male competition over females, juvenile males perform more social play than do females, and such play may assist in later mating competition. This study examined whether social play behavior is sexually dimorphic in a polygamous neotropical primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi), through a six-week field study of two groups of wild monkeys in Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. We hypothesized that males would conduct more rough-and-tumble play than females and that any sex-based play differences would be more evident in older juveniles. We video recorded juvenile play bouts and scored: age category (younger or older juvenile) and sex of players (male or female); and rough-and-tumble play behaviors (i.e., bite, grab, and wrestle). Juvenile males initiated more play bouts than did females. Most players were older juvenile males, while older juvenile females were the least represented. Older juvenile play bouts occurred mostly among males, while younger juvenile bouts consisted of a more even sex distribution. While younger juveniles did not significantly affect the number of rough-and-tumble behaviors in bouts, the number of behaviors was significantly affected by the sex of older individuals. These results indicate that social play is sexually dimorphic in juvenile S. collinsi; specifically, males play more than females and sex differences are more pronounced in older cohorts.
KEYWORDS: Squirrel Monkeys; Mating System; Sexual Dimorphism; Juvenile Period; Development; Play Behavior; Social Behavior; Ethology



AJUR Volume 17 Issue 4 (March 2021)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 4 (March 2021)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. Factors Controlling Coral Skeletal U/Ca Ratios with Implications for their Use as a Proxy for Past Ocean Conditions
Emily Patterson, Spencer Eanes, Penelope Lancrete, Anne Gothmann*a, & Paul Robackb
aDepartment of Environmental Studies and Physics, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN
bDepartment of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN
ABSTRACT: Seawater temperature, salinity and carbonate chemistry have been shown to influence the uranium/calcium (U/Ca) ratios of scleractinian coral skeletons. This apparent sensitivity of U/Ca to multiple environmental parameters calls into question whether there is one environmental variable that most strongly controls coral U/Ca, and whether U/Ca can be straightforwardly applied as a paleoenvironmental proxy due to the tendency of environmental variables to covary in space and time. In this study, uranium concentration data from an existing compilation of tropical scleractinian coral U-series measurements is paired with environmental data from the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) to examine the sensitivity of coral skeletal U/Ca to multiple seawater properties including temperature, salinity, pH, and saturation state. First, univariate linear regressions and multiple linear regressions were used to compare relationships between uranium and environmental parameters in the dataset with relationships observed in previous studies. Next, principal component analysis and regularized regression were used to identify the most likely predictors of coral U/Ca in order to create a multiple linear regression model. Results indicate that pH, Ω, alkalinity, and temperature are all significant predictors of uranium concentrations in coral. The magnitude and strength of relationships between U/Ca and environmental variables also differ across different genera. Seawater properties with strong correlations and small ranges make interpretation of these results difficult. However, results of these analyses indicate that U/Ca is dependent on multiple environmental parameters and that previously developed univariate regressions may be insufficient to characterize the full range of variables that influence coral [238U].
KEYWORDS: Coral; Paleoceanography; Proxy Calibration; Uranium; Multiple Linear Regression; Regularized Regression; Environmental Change; Oceanographic Databases

p.19. Analyzing Trends in Water Table Elevations at the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, U.S.A.
Anna Stockstad*a, Ella Gray,a Stephen Sebestyenb, Nina Lanyc, Randall Kolkab, & Marcella Windmuller-Campionea
aDepartment of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota- Twin Cities, St. Paul, Minnesota
bUSDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, Minnesota
cUSDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Durham, New Hampshire
ABSTRACT: Water table fluctuations in peatlands are closely coupled with the local climate setting and drive critical ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. In Minnesota, USA, peatlands cover ten percent of the surface area, approximately 2.5 million hectares, some of which are actively managed for forest products. To explore the relationship between peatland water tables and precipitation, long-term data (1961 to 2019) were used from the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. Starting in 1961, water table data from seven peatlands, including two types of peatlands (bogs and fens), were measured. We used the Theil-Sen estimator to test for monotonic trends in mean monthly water table elevations for individual peatlands and monthly precipitation. Water levels in bogs were both more variable and had mean water table elevations that were closer to the surface. Individual trends of water table elevations differed among peatlands. Water table elevations increased over time in three of the bogs studied and decreased over time in two of the bogs studied. Trends within fens were notably nonlinear across time. No significant linear trend was found for mean monthly precipitation between 1961 and 2019. These results highlight differences in peatlands types, local physiography, and the importance of understanding how changes in long-term dynamics coupled with changing current conditions will influence the effects of water table fluctuations on ecosystem services. The variability of water table elevations in bogs poses potential difficulties in modeling these ecosystems or creating adaptive management plans.
KEYWORDS: Peatlands; Hydrology; Water tables; Bogs; Fens; Monitoring; Minnesota; Climate Change

p.33. Treatment Outcomes in a Partial Hospital Program for Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Effects of Comorbid Major Depression
Allison Grahama,b*, Douglas R. Terrilla, Simone I. Boyda, Isabel Benjamina, Madeline Warda, & Mark Zimmermana,c
aRhode Island Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Providence, RI
bDepartment of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI
cDepartment of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI
ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have examined the impact of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on social anxiety disorder (SAD), the results have been somewhat mixed. Furthermore, most studies have been conducted in inpatient or outpatient settings. Given the large body of literature that suggests that this particular comorbidity can have negative effects on treatment efficacy and outcomes, it is important to continue to explore its impact. The present study aims to clarify contradictions in the literature and expands on previous studies by examining patients in a partial hospitalization setting. Patients at Rhode Island Hospital with a diagnosis of SAD were compared to those with comorbid SAD and MDD on pre-treatment and post-treatment measures of anxiety and depression. The results indicated that while the comorbid group showed significantly less improvement post-treatment on anxiety symptoms and constructs related to remission from depression, they did not show significantly less improvement on depression symptoms. The implications of these results for clinical practice are discussed.
KEYWORDS: Social Anxiety Disorder; Major Depressive Disorder; Comorbid Anxiety Disorders; Comorbid Mood Disorders; Treatment Outcomes; Partial Hospitalization Program

p.41. Evaluation of Physical Activity Participation, Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy for Employees Participating in Exercise Is Medicine® On Campus Program
Maximilian Gastelum-Morales*, Lisa J. Leininger ͣ, Joanna L. Morrissey, Ryan Luke ͣ, & Mark DeBelisoc
ͣ Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Monterey Bay, Marina, CA
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Green Bay, WI
cDepartment of Kinesiology and Outdoor Recreation, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT, United States
ABSTRACT: Exercise Is Medicine® On Campus (EIM-OC) is a worldwide initiative from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) to promote physical activity (PA) at universities. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) implemented this initiative in Fall 2019 with offerings to students and employees. For employees, an “Introduction to Resistance Training Class” was offered. Participants attended classes two times per week, with the sessions lasting approximately fifty minutes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EIM-OC employee Introduction to Resistance Training class for its effectiveness on increasing PA, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. The research design was pre-post, with participants completing online questionnaires before and after the course. The Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPQ), Resistance Training Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy Questionnaire, and Self-Efficacy and the Maintenance of Exercise Participation in Older Adults Questionnaire were included. The training class had a total of 14 female participants, 12 of which completed the pre- and post-questionnaires.There was a significant increase (t=-3.2, df=11, p=.004) in resistance training self-efficacy score following the course (M=3.52±1.03 versus M=4.31±.56). Resistance training outcome expectancy score was also statistically significant (t=-2.54, df=11, p=.01) following the course (M=4.48±.53 versus M=4.71±.37). There were increases in strenuous exercise days, physical activity scores, and future resistance training self-efficacy, although they were not statistically significant. The results of this study indicate that employee exercise classes, as part of the EIM-OC initiative, can be effective in increasing resistance training self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. These indicators are important for individuals to maintain lifelong PA therefore future programming and research on EIM-OC should continue.
KEYWORDS: Exercise Is MedicineⓇ-On Campus; Resistance Training; Physical Activity; Exercise; Worksite Health Promotion Program; Self-Efficacy; Outcome Expectancy; Employees; California State University, Monterey Bay

p.49. Axisymmetric Thermal Finite Element Analysis of Effects of Intraocular Projector in the Human Eye
John A. Stark*a, Craig D. Fosterb, & Charles Yuc
aDepartment of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL
bDepartment of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL
cDepartment of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, CA
ABSTRACT: Millions of people worldwide live with corneal opacity which continues to be one of the leading causes of blindness. Corneal opacity is treatable. However, the surgical methods for treating this condition, such as corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, have many complications. The use of an intraocular projector is a promising approach to treat corneal blindness. Like any device using electrical power, an intraocular projection device produces heat, which could potentially damage eye tissue. Australian and international standards state that there cannot be an increase of temperature of 2 °C caused by an implanted device. In order to determine if these standards are met, a 2D axisymmetric thermal analysis of the projector in the human eye is conducted in ANSYS Workbench. With the projector operating at its maximum wattage, our analysis shows that an air gap extension within the projector will help maintain the temperature increase below 2 °C.
KEYWORDS: Finite Element Analysis; Eye; Heat Dissipation; Axisymmetric; Thermal Conductivity; Internal Heat Generation; Corneal Blindness; ANSYS; Intraocular Projector

p.59. Prime Factors and Divisibility of Sums of Powers of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers
Spirit Karcher, Mariah Michael
Department of Mathematics, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA
ABSTRACT: The Fibonacci sequence, whose first terms are f0; 1; 1; 2; 3; 5; : : :g, is generated using the recursive formula Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn with F0 = 0 and F1 = 1. This sequence is one of the most famous integer sequences because of its fascinating mathematical properties and connections with other fields such as biology, art, and music. Closely related to the Fibonacci sequence is the Lucas sequence. The Lucas sequence, whose first terms are f2; 1; 3; 4; 7; 11; : : :g, is generated using the recursive formula Ln+2 = Ln+1 + Ln with L0 = 2 and L1 = 1. In this paper, patterns in the prime factors of sums of powers of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are examined. For example, F2 3n+4 + F2 3n+2 is even for all n 2 N0. To prove these results, techniques from modular arithmetic and facts about the divisibility of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are utilized.
KEYWORDS: Fibonacci Sequence; Lucas Sequence; Modular Arithmetic; Divisibility Sequence

p.71. A Survey of Inhibitors for the Main Protease of Coronaviruses with the Potential for Development of Broad-Spectrum Therapeutics
Alyssa Sanders*a, Samuel Riccib, Sarah Uribea, Bridget Boylea, Brian Nepperb, & Nathaniel Nuccia,b
aDepartment of Molecular & Cellular Biosciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ
bDepartment of Physics & Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ
ABSTRACT: The coronaviruses plaguing humanity in the 21st century share much in common: a spontaneous route of origin from wild animals, a propensity to take human life, and, importantly, a highly conserved set of biological machinery necessary for viral replication. Most recently, the SARS-CoV-2 is decimating economies around the world and has claimed over two million human lives, reminding the world of a need for an effective drug against present and future coronaviruses. To date, attempts to repurpose clinically approved antiviral medications show minimal promise, highlighting the need for development of new antiviral drugs. Nucleotide analog inhibitors are a promising therapeutic candidate, but early data from clinical studies suggests these compounds have limited efficacy. However, novel compounds targeting the main protease responsible for critical steps in viral assembly are gaining considerable interest because they offer the potential for broad-spectrum coronavirus therapy. Here, we review the literature regarding potential inhibitors for the main protease of coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2, analyze receptor-drug interactions, and draw conclusions about candidate inhibitors for future outbreaks. Promising candidates for development of a broad-spectrum coronavirus protease inhibitor include the neuraminidase inhibitor 3K, the peptidomimetic inhibitor 11a and 11b, the α-ketoamide inhibitor 13b, the aldehyde prodrug, and the phosphate prodrug developed by Pfizer. In silico and in vitro analyses have shown that these inhibitors strongly interact with the active site of the main protease, and to varying degrees, prevent viral replication via interactions with the largely conserved active site pockets.
KEYWORDS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; Replicase Polypeptide; Protease; Neuraminidase Inhibitor; Peptidomimetic Inhibitor; α-Ketoamide Inhibitor; Molecular Docking


AJUR Volume 17 Issue 3 (December 2020)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 3 (December 2020)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3 Investigating the Effect of Flock Size on Vigilance in the American Coot (Fulica americana) in Relationship to Habitat
Dat Q. Lam, Suyash P. Rizal, Roxanne Cota, Miguel Sicaja, Gabriel Cox, Brandon Wakefield, & Zia Nisani
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Antelope Valley College, Lancaster, CA
ABSTRACT: Among many anti-predator behaviors, vigilance is observed in many species and plays an important role in survival. In this study, we investigated the effect of flock size on vigilance in American Coots (Fulica americana)foraging on land and water, by observing individual birds in these habitats and recording the time spent scanning (i.e., vigilance). Mean flock size was larger on land compared to water and vigilance negatively correlated with flock size. Birds in water were more vigilant compared to on land, regardless of whether they were foraging alone or in flocks. However, the effect of flock size on vigilance showed a weak linear correlation as it was possible that other factors (e.g., human habituation, food kleptoparasitism, or scramble competition) could have also played a role in shaping vigilance. These results suggest that there is a relationship between flock size and vigilance, which are related to previous researches that show a negative correlation between vigilance and flock size.
KEYWORDS: Birds; American Coot; Vigilance; Scanning; Foraging; Flock Size; Habituation; Competition; Behavior

p.11 Cyclophosphamide Depletes Ovarian Follicles in Mice During Both the Light and Dark Phases of the Circadian Cycle
Benjamin Z. Koch & Kristen A. Roosa*
Biology Department, State University of New York College at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY
ABSTRACT: The alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CY) is a potent ovarian toxicant. It damages growing follicles and causes premature activation and depletion of the resting follicles that constitute the ovarian reserve. While there is abundant information on the impact of CY on the ovary and its toxicity mechanisms, the influence of the circadian rhythm on ovarian toxicity has not been evaluated. To test the hypothesis that time of exposure affects ovarian toxicity of CY, C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single injection of CY (75 mg/kg) at either two hours after lights on (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 02) or two hours after lights off (ZT14). Toxicity was evaluated one week after treatment by counting ovarian follicles in histological sections. Fewer primordial follicles were counted in the ovaries of CY-treated animals at both treatment times, and fewer antral follicles were counted in the ovaries of animals treated at ZT02. There was no difference in the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries of CY-treated animals between the two treatment times. These results demonstrate that CY-induced depletion of the ovarian reserve occurs when mice are exposed early in the light phase and early in the circadian cycle’s dark phase. There is no impact of the circadian rhythm on follicle depletion by CY at these time points.
KEYWORDS: Cyclophosphamide; ovary; circadian; ovarian follicles; toxicity; mouse; chronotherapy; alkylating agent

p.19 Associations of Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with Child Internalizing Symptoms and Body Mass Index in Ethnically-Diverse Mother-Child Dyads
Paulina Mozdzierz, Genevieve F. Dunton, & Tyler B. Mason*
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
ABSTRACT: Mothers may use controlling feeding practices (i.e., pressure to eat and restriction) to regulate their child’s weight. However, these practices may have unintended consequences on the weight and mental health of children. The first aim of this study was to investigate differences in maternal controlling feeding practices by child gender, age, and maternal ethnicity. The second aim was to examine cross-sectional associations among maternal controlling feeding practices, child body mass index z-scores (BMI-z), global internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety symptoms), and self-esteem. The third aim was to determine whether child sex and mother ethnicity moderate these associations. A sample of 202 ethnically diverse mother-child dyads (children ages 8-12; 49% female) completed self-report questionnaires and had weight and height measurements taken. Results showed no differences in maternal controlling feeding practices by gender, ethnicity, or age. Pressure to eat was negatively related to child BMI-z, and restriction was positively related to BMI-z. Moreover, pressure to eat was negatively related to child self-esteem. There were no associations between maternal controlling feeding practices and global internalizing symptoms. Further, no associations differed by child gender or mother ethnicity. Maternal controlling feeding practices may be used to move a child’s weight toward a healthy weight range. Overall, there was little evidence for associations between feeding practices and poor mental health; although, pressure to eat was related to poorer self-esteem in children.
KEYWORDS: Maternal; Feeding; Practices; Child; BMI-z; Mental; Health; Controlling; Restricting

p.29 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Enhanced Agar Composites: A Biocompatible Photo-catalyst for Degradation of Organic Dyes
Shreyas Dindorkar*a, Jaymin Mistrya, Jayesh Hirea, Khushi Jainb, Nandini Khonab, Shreya Peddakolmib, & Paresh Moreab
a Department of Chemistry, K. E. T’s, Vinayak Ganesh Vaze College (Autonomous), Mulund, Mumbai, India
b Department of Biotechnology, K. E. T’s, Vinayak Ganesh Vaze College (Autonomous), Mulund, Mumbai, India
Abstract: Herein we report the synthesis of graphene oxide-based agar composites using a solution casting method. Graphene oxide was synthesized by modified Hummer’s method and was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene oxide-based agar composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Optical band gap obtained from the Tauc plot showed that the composites could be used in the photodegradation of dyes. The synthesized composite material was checked for its practical applicability in the degradation of methylene blue dye under solar irradiation; with an increase in the concentration of graphene oxide, catalyst, and H2O2, the rate constant increases. The rate constant was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of methylene blue dye. Dosage of graphene oxide was found to be the most prominent factor in increasing the rate of photodegradation. It is clear from the data for the reaction system that the degradation reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetics.
Keywords: Composites; Ultra-sonication; Photodegradation; Methylene Blue; XRD; Graphene Oxide; Kinetics; Biocompatibility

p.41 The Evolution of Multidrug Resistance in an Isolated Pseudomonas Strain
Allison Grodnick*a, Ashley Finka, Timothy J. Johnsonbc, & David Mitchella
aDepartment of Biology, College of St. Benedict St. John’s University, Collegeville, MN
bDepartment of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
cMid-Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, Willmar, MN
ABSTRACT: As an unintentional result of the extensive use of antibiotics in healthcare and agriculture, antibiotics have become an increasingly prevalent selective pressure on bacteria. This forces bacteria to evolve and acquire antibiotic-resistant genes or mutations in order to survive. Suppose a bacterial strain acquires resistance to three or more antibiotics. In that case, it is deemed multidrug-resistant (MDR), and it becomes a potentially more serious problem to solve in the context of healthcare. This study aims to evaluate the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotic drugs by an initially susceptible isolated bacterium from a Minnesota forest environment. The bacterium was found to be Pseudomonas by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Three antibiotics, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, each from a different drug class, were selected to see if this isolate could become resistant over time and exposure. The bacterial strain developed resistance to the selected antibiotics through a series of sequential exposures to increasing concentrations of each drug in this order. As determined by a disc susceptibility test, the initial isolate acquired resistance to all three selected antibiotics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the original isolate and the final resistant strain were identified. These SNPs suggest that mutations to efflux transporters and antibiotic protein targets play a role in acquiring and maintaining antibiotic resistance.
KEYWORDS: Multidrug Resistance; Antibiotics; Neomycin; Ciprofloxacin; Imipenem; Pseudomonas; Evolution; MDR; Minnesota Environment

p.51 Stripping Material from a Supported Lipid Bilayer with High Speed Buffer Flow
Michael J. Ornstead, Ruth Hunter, Mason L. Valentine, Cameron Cooper, Stephen K. Smith, & Christopher F. Monson*
Department of Physical Science, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT
ABSTRACT: A microfluidic device was created and used to demonstrate that supported lipid bilayers can be deposited on clean glass slides and removed using high velocity buffer flow (1-4 m/s linear velocity). This was accomplished by forcing the flow through a microfluidic channel covering an annealed glass coverslip bearing a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). The removal of bilayer material was monitored via fluorescence microscopy, and two basic regimes were observed: at 1-2 m/s smaller areas were stripped, while at 3-4 m/s larger areas were stripped. SLB removal was verified by two means. First, lipid vesicles labeled with a different fluorescent dye were added to the device and filled in holes left by the removal of the original SLB, allowing stripping to be verified visually. Second, the solutions obtained from stripping were concentrated and the fluorescence in the concentrates was measured. The ability to strip SLB from glass provides a relatively gentle method of creating spatially inhomogeneous SLB, which could be a useful tool in the continued investigation of membrane properties and components.
KEYWORDS: Supported Lipid Bilayer; Membrane Vesicle; Microfluidic Device

p.61 Assessing Initiatives for Rural Health Practices in South Carolina
Aalia Soherwardy*a & Elizabeth Crouchb
aUniversity of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC
bRural and Minority Health Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine which incentives are most effective in motivating medical students to practice in rural areas of South Carolina, which can be informative for the medical practitioner rural recruitment process. Medical students attending the University of South Carolina School of Medicine located in Columbia, South Carolina were surveyed about demographic information, motivations for rural practice, and considerations for choosing a practice location (n=109). Chi-square tests and bivariate analyses were used to test for significant differences. A significant relationship was found between previous residence in a rural area and personal motivation to practice in a rural area (p<0.001). It was also found that 86.2% of students who had previously lived, worked, or served in rural areas had a personal motivation to practice medicine in a rural area, confirming previous research. Loan forgiveness options were the most appealing personal incentive for the students in this study, closely followed by guaranteed minimum incomes and tax incentives; financial incentives were more preferred than non-financial incentives like reduced on-call work and accelerated residencies. The results of this study can be utilized to craft future state-supported incentive programs or to tailor current programs to more effectively recruit students to rural practice.
KEYWORDS: Rural; Recruitment; Healthcare Provider; Shortage; Incentive Programs; Medical Student; Southern United States; Loan Forgiveness

p.73 Travel Through Time: From 9/11 to COVID-19, Parallel Predictive Analysis of Travel Marketing
Hannah Gilliam*
Gainey School of Business, Spring Arbor University, Spring Arbor, MI
ABSTRACT: The events of 9/11 drastically changed the state of the nation across many industry sectors, with the tourism industry among those most affected. Following that horrific day, the nation experienced heightened security measures and protocol, such that the travel industry and travelers would never look the same. People were fearful and anxious, and the tourism industry had to take quick, effective measures to evaluate the consumer response, set a marketing strategy, and promote within a changed national ethos and expectations. COVID-19 is a similar catastrophic, global, and long-term crisis that set our nation on a similarly drastic change in practice and protocol; fear and anxiety were higher than ever. COVID-19 and 9/11 are highly comparable in their market response. By comparing the two events and analyzing the consumer response and advertising messaging, specifically during the stay at home order, a theme and direction for messaging within the travel industry post-COVID-19 can be predicted based on the culture and spirit of The American Dream, confidence in safety, we are in this together, support local tourism, explore your city in a new way, and connect with those you missed.
KEYWORDS: COVID-19; 9/11; Post-pandemic; Advertising; Travel; Prediction; Messaging; Consumer Response; Marketing; Analysis

AJUR Volume 17 Issue 2 (September 2020)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 2 (September 2020)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. Bacillus cereus & Bacillus pumilus Harvested from a Copper Roof Inhibit the Growth of Other Microorganisms
Alison Stiller, Ashley Fink, & David Mitchell
ABSTRACT: Bacteria growing under the effects of unique selective pressures have distinct adaptations allowing them to survive. Copper surfaces present challenges for bacterial survival because ions dissolve from the surfaces and disrupt cell membranes, thus inhibiting bacterial growth. In this study, the copper roof of Simons Hall in Collegeville, Minnesota was sampled for bacterial species during November 2018. Bacteria were isolated and grown in culture, and zones of inhibition were identified surrounding three of the bacterial colonies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify two of the bacteria samples as Bacillus cereus and a third sample as Bacillus pumilus. Bacilli are large, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria commonly found in diverse environments. They are endospore-forming aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Initial experiments indicated that all three Bacillus strains had the ability to inhibit the growth of three environmental microorganisms. Results from growth curve experiments depicted inhibitory effects on environmental microorganisms at all stages of the growth curve, which is contrary to the prediction that the inhibitory behavior would appear at one specific period of the growth curve. Additional experiments involved plating isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus with laboratory samples of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes to further understand the effectiveness of B. cereus and B. pumilus at inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms. These findings support previous studies and suggest that Bacillus are capable of inhibiting or killing other organisms. Further research will be conducted to illuminate the inhibitory mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic possibilities.
KEYWORDS: Bacteria; Copper; Resistance; Growth Curve; Inhibition; Bacillus; Bacteriocin; Antimicrobial Peptides

p. 13. An Assessment of Sleep Duration and Determinants of Health in a Cross-Sectional Sample of Gynecologic Cancer Survivors in Los Angeles County
Ma’at Hembrick, Makala E. Conner, & Heather P. Tarleton
ABSTRACT: Cancer survivors have an increased risk of treatment-related deficits in physical health and low health-related quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, a health questionnaire was mailed to women from the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program aged 45-70 and diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer in 2005-2014. Of the 5,941 surveys with valid postal addresses, 586 (10%) were completed and returned. The average age of respondents was 66 years old, and 36% identified as non-white. Non-white respondents were less likely to have a college degree (p<0.001), more likely to sleep for less than seven hours each night (p<0.001), experience bodily pain (p<0.001), and have a diagnosis of cervical cancer (p=0.002), when compared to white respondents. Health behaviors and determinants were examined across cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cases. Cervical cancer survivors reported sleeping less than 7 hours per night, on average (p=0.015). Race was associated with sleep duration among endometrial (p=0.002) and ovarian (p=0.003) cancer survivors. Menopausal status was associated with the relationship between race and sleep duration (p<0.001). Depression was inversely related to sleep duration (p = 0.022) but was not associated with race, menopausal status, time since treatment, physical activity, or cancer type. Postmenopausal cervical cancer survivors reported a moderate concern about fall risk compared to their premenopausal counterparts (p=0.048). Physical activity levels increased as time since treatment increased (p=0.003) regardless of cancer type. Race, menopausal status, depression, and cancer type impacted the sleep duration.
KEYWORDS: Health Disparities; Sleep Duration; Depression; Gynecologic Cancers; Survivorship Care

p.27. An Unlikely Symbiosis: Science and Law
Evan Miller
ABSTRACT: Science has historically held a position of high regard in society. Science is intimately connected to law. These disciplines meet in the courtroom. Due to the nature of civil and criminal disputes in the United States, litigators retain expert witnesses to explicate nuanced subjects, including science. Unfortunately, the common law system has not always favored sound science. This paper examines how science and law can work in concert to benefit all people. Some feel that scientists should simply educate courtrooms, but further scrutiny questions the feasibility of this approach. Understanding the sociology of scientific knowledge elucidates this debate and is applied to the forensic sciences. Science and law have the capacity to improve the human condition and increase equity among all people.
KEYWORDS: Science Communication; Expert Witnesses; Science; Public Perception; Law; Misinformation

p.35. Microfibers in Mytilus species(Mollusca, Bivalvia)from Southern California Harbors, Beaches, and Supermarkets
Chloe Mankin & Andrea Huvard
ABSTRACT: Plastic microfibers are an emerging threat to terrestrial and aquatic habitats worldwide. They are equivalent in size to planktonic organisms, making them available to a range of invertebrates. Bivalve mollusks can ingest and accumulate plastics via digestion and adherence to soft tissue. We determined the frequency and characteristics of microfiber pollution from wild Mytilus californianus and farmed Mytilus edulis populations that were collected from southern California harbors, beaches, and supermarkets (n=4 per site). Mussel organic matter was dissected using 30% H2O2. After adding a saline solution to separate the fibers, the liquid was filtered by vacuum filtration. The remaining fibers were examined with a magnification of 1~8x. In this short-term survey, the abundance of microfibers by sample and by shell length showed a significantdifference between the harbor and beach sites. However, there was not a significant difference between the wild and farmed mussels examined. This study revealed widespread microfiber pollution and uptake by mussels in these locations and reinforces how bivalves can be used as a bioindicator of microfiber pollution.
KEYWORDS: Microplastic; Microfiber; Mytilus; Biomonitoring; Bivalvia; Seafood; Human Health

 p.45. A Brief History and Overview of Existential-Phenomenological Psychology
Christopher Zieske
ABSTRACT: This article surveys the background and theory of the existential-phenomenological approach to psychology, with a particular focus on its reception in the United States. The article begins with a discussion of what exactly existential-phenomenological psychology is, including the theories underlying this approach and its basic practices. The article then discusses how the approach developed, including its roots in the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology, its first appearances in Europe, its globalization, and finally its arrival in the U.S. The article then discusses struggles that the existential-phenomenological movement in psychology is currently facing and the concerns of those involved in the movement for its future. Finally, the article closes on a summary of all the information presented as well as of the contributions to the field of psychology that it and the existential-phenomenological movement can make.
KEYWORDS: Existentialism; Phenomenology; Psychology; United States; Existential Psychology; Phenomenological Psychology; Existential Psychotherapy; Philosophy of Psychology

AJUR Volume 17 Issue 1 (June 2020)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 1 (June 2020)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. 9-Borobicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-Catalyzed Hydroboration of Terminal Aromatic Alkynes with Pinacolborane
Garett L. Ruesch, Sydney L. Rowley, Marcus C. Mifflin, & Nathan S. Werner*
Department of Physical Science, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT
ABSTRACT: Organoboron compounds are extensively used in organic synthesis. The alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters formed from the hydroboration reaction of alkynes with pinacolborane are stable, easy to handle, and useful in many synthetic transformations. However, pinacolborane lacks the reactivity necessary to undergo facile hydroboration reaction with terminal aromatic alkynes. 9-Borobicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) can be used to catalyze the hydroboration reaction of phenylacetylene with pinacolborane. The hydroboration reaction parameters and product purification conditions were evaluated to maximize the yield of (E)-2-phenylethenylboronic acid pinacol ester. It was found that the optimal reaction conditions for the 9-BBN-catalyzed hydroboration of phenylacetylene with pinacolborane were: phenylacetylene (1.0 equiv), pinacolborane (1.2 equiv), 9-BBN (20 mol%), and THF [0.2] at 65 °C. The compatibility of these reaction conditions with p-substituted terminal aromatic alkynes bearing electronically diverse groups was studied. Moderate to good yield (49–76%) of the hydroboration products were isolated after purification by liquid-liquid extraction and flash chromatography.
KEYWORDS: Organic Synthesis; Catalysis; Methods Development; Hydroboration; Reaction Optimization; Alkenylboronic Ester; Alkyne; Pinacolborane; 9-Borobicyclo[3.3.1]nonane

p.13. Synthetic Biology Bicistronic Designs Support Gene Expression Equally Well in vitro and in vivo
Owen Kouckya, Jacob Wagnerb, Sofia Aguilerab, Benjamin Bashawb, Queena Chena, Anthony Eckdahla, Elise Edmanc, Paul Gomeza, Nick Hanlanb, Nick Kempfd, Devin Mattoond, Sam McKlina, Christopher Mazariegosa, Alex Moreheadd, Shi Qing Ongb, Andy Petersonc, Maria Rojasa, Kyla Rolanda,, Kaitlyn Schildknechtc, Haley Seligmannc, Kaden Slaterd, Ali Tauchenb, Raechel Tittorb, Tatianna Traviesoa, Dannie Urband, Caroline Willisa, John Zhoua, Nicole L. Snydere, Laurie J. Heyerc, Jeffrey L. Poetd, Todd T. Eckdahlb, & A. Malcolm Campbell*a
aDepartment of Biology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC
bDepartment of Biology, Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, MO
cDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, Davidson College, Davidson, NC
dDepartment of Computer Science, Math, and Physics, Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, MO
eDepartment of Chemistry, Davidson College, Davidson, NC
ABSTRACT: Synthetic biology integrates molecular biology tools and an engineering mindset to address challenges in medicine, agriculture, bioremediation, and biomanufacturing. A persistent problem in synthetic biology has been designing genetic circuits that produce predictable levels of protein. In 2013, Mutalik and colleagues developed bicistronic designs (BCDs) that make protein production more predicable in bacterial cells (in vivo). With the growing interest in producing proteins outside of cells (in vitro), we wanted to know if BCDs would work as predictably in cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) as they do in E. coli cells. We tested 20 BCDs in CFPS and found they performed very similarly in vitro and in vivo. As a step toward developing methods for protein production in artificial cells, we also tested 3 BCDs inside nanoliter-scaled microfluidic droplets. The BCDs worked well in the microfluidic droplets, but their relative protein production levels were not as predictable as expected. These results suggest that the conditions under which gene expression happens in droplets result in a different relationship between genetic control elements such as BCDs and protein production than exists in batch CFPS or in cells.
KEYWORDS: Bicistronic Design; Synthetic Biology; Cell-Free Protein Synthesis; Microfluidics
Supplement 1
Supplement 2

p.21. Survey of Wolbachia frequency in Nashville, Tennessee Reveals Novel Infections
Sangami Pugazenthi, Phoebe White, Aakash Basu, Anoop Chandrashekar, & J. Dylan Shropshire*
Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
ABSTRACT: Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) are maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that infect approximately half of all insect species. These bacteria commonly act as reproductive parasites or mutualists to enhance their transmission from mother to offspring, resulting in high prevalence among some species. Despite decades of research on Wolbachia’s global frequency, there are many arthropod families and geographic regions that have not been tested for Wolbachia. Here, arthropods were collected on the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, Tennessee, where Wolbachia frequency has not been previously studied. The dataset consists of 220 samples spanning 34 unique arthropod families collected on the Vanderbilt University campus. The majority of our samples were from the families Blattidae (Blattodea), Pulicidae (Siphonaptera), Dryinidae (Hymenoptera), Aphididae (Hemiptera), Paronellidae (Entomobryomorpha), Formicidae (Hymenoptera), Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera), Sphaeroceridae (Diptera), and Coccinellidae (Coleoptera). PCR-based techniques were used to assign infection states and, from these data, the first cases of Wolbachia in the Paronellidae springtails, Lithobiidae (Lithobiomorpha) centipedes, Lonchopteridae (Diptera) spear-winged flies, Sepsidae (Diptera) black scavenger flies, Cryptocercidae (Blattodea) wood roaches, and Lauxaniidae (Diptera) acalyptrate flies were identified. Within-family infection frequencies ranged from 17-100% when Wolbachia was observed; however, numerous families tested did not reveal evidence of infection. These results expand on the field’s understanding of Wolbachia’sfrequencyin Nashville, Tennessee, and among arthropod families broadly, and is the first report of Wolbachia in centipedes.
KEYWORDS: Wolbachia; Infection Frequency; Endosymbiont; Tennessee; Centipede; Arthropod; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Nashville

AJUR Volume 16 Issue 4 (March 2020)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 16 Issue 4 (March 2020)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.5. Coating Polyurethane with Palmitoleic Acid and Bovine Serum Albumin to Prevent the Host Response to Foreign Materials
Sheherbano Hussain, Zoha Babar, Jimmy Hadid, & Jacqueline McLaughlin
ABSTRACT: Macrophages are cells of the immune system that play a pivotal role in the host inflammatory response by attacking and engulfing any foreign molecule not seen as ‘self.’ They also help regulate the host response by releasing a variety of cytokines and growth factors that act as signals to other cells to amplify the host response. However, the host response causes degradation of implanted medical devices composed of polyurethane as well as other synthetic materials which it does not identify as self. Research was undertaken to investigate the potential of coating polyurethane with the self-like molecules palmitoleic acid and albumin to reduce or prevent the body’s host response from damaging implanted medical devices. Using an in vitro THP-1 bioassay, polyurethane films coated with palmitoleic acid and bovine serum albumin showed a reduction in macrophage adherence. The individually coated palmitoleic acid and bovine serum albumin films significantly reduced the number of cells attached to the films with increasing concentration while the films coated with the conjugate of both showed no statistical difference. This suggests the potential role of self-like molecules in reducing the inflammatory response to foreign materials.
KEYWORDS: Macrophages; host inflammatory response; THP-1; prosthetics; palmitoleic acid; bovine serum albumin; cytokines; immune system

p.15 Music Intervention in Undergraduates: the Relationship between Heart Rate Variability and State Anxiety
Annalise J. Tolley & Robert S. Vick
ABSTRACT: A low heart rate variability (HRV) is indicative of autonomic inflexibility, which has important implications for physical and psychological health. This study investigates autonomic functioning and its relationship to state anxiety in the context of music intervention. A within-subjects, quasi-experimental design was used with undergraduates, a population frequently impacted by state anxiety. Participants pre-selected music that they identified as the most “relaxing” before being administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Baseline physiological indices were then collected using an EKG, followed by administration of the selected music and an additional collection of physiological indices. After the full duration of music intervention was administered, participants took the STAI once more. Results indicated that even short durations of music listening may serve to reduce anxiety in the undergraduate student, as was evidenced by the significant increase in physiological indices and decrease in self-reported anxiety levels. However, while changes in HRV and anxiety may trend together, results indicated no statistical association between these parameters.
KEYWORDS: Heart Rate Variability; Anxiety; Music Intervention; Autonomic Tone; Vagal Control; Autonomic Flexibility; College Students; State Anxiety

p.23 Can Expense Ratios Signal Performance? An Analysis of Equity ETFs & Mutual Funds
James Monroe Gamble IV
ABSTRACT: This study examines the impact of the emergence of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) as an alternative investment vehicle to mutual funds. As the number of ETFs continues to rise, we investigate potential risks and disadvantages posed by ETFs in comparison to traditional mutual funds. ­We compare the returns, performance, and expense ratios of ETFs to those of mutual funds. We find that expense ratios are positively correlated with actively managed mutual fund returns and that passive funds have outperformed active funds since their inception. There is downward pressure on mutual fund fees over time, suggesting increased competition between mutual funds and ETFs. We also find, up to a certain threshold, actively managed funds are worth their costs.
KEYWORDS: Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF); Mutual Fund; Investing; Fee Structure; Expense Ratio; Passive (Active) Investing; Portfolio Management; Indexing

p.41 Acoustic Identification of Wild Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, Using Low Quality Recordings
Cara B Hull, Caitlin M McCombe, & Angela M Dassow
ABSTRACT: Invasive trapping and radio-collaring techniques are currently used by conservation biologists to study the population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Previous research has found wolf howls can be used to determine individual identity on high quality recordings from captive animals, offering an opportunity for non-invasive monitoring of packs.We recorded wild wolves in Central Wisconsin to determine the effectiveness of these features in determining individuality in low quality recordings. The wolf howls analyzed were from two adult individuals from separate packs. Using a principle component analysis, maximum frequency and end frequency of the calls were determined to be most individualistic. Using these features in a discriminant function analysis, howls were able to be identified from individuals with 100% accuracy. Gray wolves play an important role in ecosystem maintenance, however, the current monitoring techniques are costly and invasive. The creation of an easily accessible, non-invasive technique that can be used by individuals with a variety of technical backgrounds is necessary to address concerns faced by conservation efforts. To address these issues, all analyses performed usedfree or low-cost software, making this method of individual identification a useful alternative for conservation biologists.
KEYWORDS: Canis lupus lycaon; Gray Wolf; Acoustic Signatures; Howls; Tracking Method; Conservation; Vocal Individuality

p.51 The Allele Frequency of the HFE gene mutation H63D (rs1799945) and Its Relationship to a Hereditary Hemochromatosis Diagnosis in Metabolic Nutrition Students at Virginia Tech
Tyler R. Ferqueron, Angela S. Anderson, & Deborah J. Good
ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a disease that causes excess iron absorption from the diet.  This excess iron can be stored in the liver, skin, heart, pancreas, and joints, and then can lead to other health conditions, as the human body has no way of actively excreting iron.  The human hemochromatosis protein (HFE protein) is encoded by the HFE gene, and mutations in this gene can lead to a dysfunction of the protein resulting in HH or iron overload later in adulthood.  The objective of this study was to analyze the mutant allele frequency and the penetrance of the H63D mutation (SNP rs1799945) of the HFE gene in a cohort of Virginia Tech students.  This study had a total of 69 participants.  Fifty-two participants provided saliva samples, genomic data from 23andMe®, and surveys with phenotypic information.  Of these, 6 were genotyped using the RFLP technique and served as controls for genotype confirmation. An additional 17 participants provided saliva samples, but did not provide 23andMe® data; genomic DNA from these participants were genotyped using the RFLP technique.  Our results showed that although none of the participants had been diagnosed with HH, the mutant allele frequency of this population was 13.04%.  In conclusion, as HH is usually diagnosed in older adults, we could not identify any students with a phenotype of HH, even though we could detect the mutant allele.  This data suggests that affordable and accessible genetic ancestry and health kits such as the 23andMe® kit, could provide an efficient way to identify, prevent, and manage HH and other genetic diseases before symptoms arise.
KEYWORDS: Hereditary Hemochromatosis; Iron Absorption; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism; College Student Population; 23andMe®; Population Analysis; Survey Results

p.59 Meningococcal Meningitis in College Students at United States Universities
Mikafui Dzotsi
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to review current United States (US) university meningitis prevention and awareness efforts for college students with the objective of finding improved methods for meningitis control on college campuses. Meningococcal meningitis cases occurring amongst the students at 45 US universities, reported by the National Meningitis Association between 2013-2017, were reviewed.  Apart from analyzing the incidence of meningococcal serotype cases and prevention protocols at the 45 US universities, interviews were conducted with university health directors and health center staff to assess the nature of meningitis control programs on college campuses. the 45 US universities reported between the years, 2013-2017, 20 universities had cases of Meningococcal meningitis serotype B (Men B) while 25 universities had cases of serotype A (Men A), C (Men C), W (Men W), or Y (Men Y).   Among 80 cases across all US universities, there were 11 deaths for a case fatality rate of 11/80 (14%). While all universities adhere to state requirements of immunization against serotypes A, C, W and Y, the vaccine for Men B was only recently FDA approved and is not widely used. Further review of some university meningitis prevention and awareness efforts reveal a trend in more passive (e.g. posters, pamphlets, health portal guidance) approaches, while the uptake of active campaign efforts (e.g. vaccination drives, presentations) are not always prioritized until outbreaks occur.
KEYWORDS: Awareness; Epidemiology; Disease; Meningococcal; Prevention; Serotype; University; Vaccination

p.71 Urban Wind Harvesting Using Flow-Induced Vibrations
Levon Ghabuzyan, Christopher Luengas, Jim Kuo
ABSTRACT: The growing global interest in sustainable energy has paved the way to the rapid development of large-scale wind farms, consisting of dozens to hundreds of wind turbines. Although these large wind farms can generate enormous amount of power, they are also costly and require large areas of land or water, and thus are not suitable for urban environments. Smaller urban wind turbines have been developed for urban environments, but there are significant challenges to their widespread deployment. One of these challenges are their urban wind flows as they are strongly affected by complex building structures, producing highly turbulent flows. Any urban wind turbine would need to be designed to function efficiently and safely under these flow conditions; however, these unpredictable and turbulent winds can induce undesirable vibrations and cause early failures. Recently, bladeless wind turbines are gaining interest due to their reduced costs compared with conventional wind turbines such as the vertical-axis wind turbine and horizontal-axis wind turbine. These bladeless turbines convert flow wind energy into vibration energy, then converts the vibration energy into electricity. This paper examines the effects of force-induced vibrations on a cantilever beam system through wind tunnel experimentation. When fluid flows around a bluff body, periodic shedding of vortices may occur under the right conditions. The vortex shedding process creates an asymmetric pressure distribution on the body which causes the body to oscillate, known as vortex-induced vibrations. The purpose of the paper is to understand the factors affecting flow-induced vibrations and to improve wind energy harvesting from these vibrations. The first part of the paper focuses on wind tunnel experiments, by utilizing a cantilever beam configuration, conceptualized by previous research. Then, the experimental model was tested in different configurations, to determine the best setup for maximizing vibrations induced on the model. The long-term goal of the project was utilizing the model to optimize the system to improve efficiency of wind energy harvesting. The experimental results showed that the presence of an upstream cylinder will significantly improve the amplitude of vibration for energy harvesting, furthermore, the experiments showed that spacing in different directions also affect the amplitude of the vibrations. A two tandem cylinder system was used in this work, including a fixed rigid upstream cylinder and a downstream cylinder supported by a cantilever beam. Various configurations of these two cylinders in terms of spanwise and streamwise separation distances were studied and their maximum and root mean square displacements are reported for different wind speeds. Results showed that the presence of an upstream cylinder will significantly improve the amplitude of vibrations. This work verified that a wind energy harvester needs to consider the effects of wind speed and separation configuration of the cylinders in order to maximize the harvester’s performance in urban environments.
KEYWORDS: Sustainable Energy; Energy Harvesting; Urban Environments; Bladeless Wind Turbines; Flow-Induced Vibrations; Cantilever Beam System; Wind Tunnel; Wake 

p. 81 Exploring the Relationship between Dystopian Literature and the Activism of Generation Z Young Adults
Aysha Jerald
ABSTRACT: Some recent research has posited that the independent and revolutionary traits of Generation Z can be traced to the circumstances of their births, specifically the 9/11 attacks and the Great Recession. While there has been research examining the effect of these events on the type of behavior Generation Z exhibits towards political and societal issues, there has been little research that examines the literary culture in which they grew up. Did popular dystopian works such as Catching Fire by Suzanne Collins (2009), Divergent by Veronica Roth (2011), and The Maze Runner by James Dashner (2009) have an impact on their political identities and behaviors? This paper examines that question by using a mixed method approach: a public questionnaire, thirteen in-depth interviews with a select group of Generation Z students from the University of Georgia, and direct content analyses of the key works under consideration. This study argues that the relationship between dystopian literature and young adult activism may offer insight into the ways literature can be used as a revolutionary tool. This study also hopes to add to the literature exploring the characteristics of Generation Z and the significance dystopian literature may have not only on a young adult’s thoughts but also their actions.
KEYWORDS: Dystopian Literature; Dystopian Literary Media; Generation Z; Youth Activism; Literary Influence; Activist Typology; Aspects of Literary Response: A New Questionnaire; College Students; Divergent; Catching Fire; The Maze Runner; Literary Culture, The Hunger Games

AJUR Volume 16 Issue 3 (December 2019)

Click on the link below to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for

AJUR Volume 16 Issue 3 (December 2019)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.5. Women in Higher Educational Leadership: Representation, Career Progression, and Compensation
Carla Cañas, Caitlyn Keeve, Carmen Ramos, Jocelyn Rivera, & Michelle L. Samuel
Department of Psychology, Mount Saint Mary’s University, Los Angeles, CA
ABSTRACT: Men in university administration repeatedly outnumber women in leadership positions. The problem under investigation is that this gender gap exists due to barriers to advancement and discrimination in both the hiring process and in the workplace. With less representation of women in higher education leadership, there is a higher risk of bias for women in this field. This study used an ex-post facto methodology and gathered public data from the University of California (UC) Annual Payroll Compensation database. Three separate studies were run to determine the level of gender differences in the representation of educational leaders, compensation, and career progression. Significant differences in gender equity existed, with more men represented at several levels of educational leadership. Significant differences were also found in compensation levels, where men earned more money than women in the same position. Lastly, a small effect, although not significant, was observed when comparing early career gender representation to non-early career gender representation. There are more women recent graduates than men in leadership positions. Together these results suggest that while there are gender gaps in representation and compensation, there may be slow progress towards better representation in early career leadership positions in the UC system. The implication of this research supports further research into factors which impact the compensation of women leaders in academia. Higher education hiring professionals and candidates for leadership positions could benefit from further development of theories around gender equity and representation.
KEYWORDS: Gender Representation; Gender Equity; Higher Educational Leadership; Women; Higher Education; Psychology; Wage Gap; Higher Education Administration

p.15 Anisotropic Behavior of Ultrasonic Waves in 3D Printed Materials
Edward Alexandera* & Gordon D. Hoopleb
aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA
bDepartment of Integrated Engineering, Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA
ABSTRACT: This study quantifies the anisotropic behavior of ultrasonic wave transmission for materials printed with three different 3D printers. As 3D printed materials become more prevalent in manufactured products, fully characterizing the physical properties of these materials become more important. This paper examines the longitudinal velocity of sound and acoustic impedance in two directions: orthogonal and parallel to the printed layers. Each of the 3D printed materials displayed slightly different transmission results. For PMMA like samples printed on a SLA printer waves travelled more quickly in the orthogonal direction than the parallel direction. For samples printed on an industrial FDM printer using ABS the opposite was true: the parallel direction was faster than the orthogonal. For samples printed on an entry level FDM printer with PLA there was no consistent pattern, instead there was a tight clustering of ultrasonic velocity in the parallel direction but substantial variation in the orthogonal direction. Overall the variation between the orthogonal and parallel directions was found to be less than 2% in all cases.
KEYWORDS: 3D Printing; Additive Manufacturing; Ultrasonic Waves; Anisotropic Material Properties; ABS; PLA

p.23 Why Regimes Repress: The Factors that Lead to Censorship of Social Media
Ezhan Hasan
Department of Political Science, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX
ABSTRACT: Social media have made it easier to create mass political action. Prominent examples include the Arab Spring movements, which took place in regions where information was previously tightly controlled by authoritarian regimes. Fearing radical change, several regimes have repressed social media use, but not all authoritarian regimes have taken the same measures. Previous research suggests that regime leadership is motivated to ensure its own survival but also influenced by a strong independent media and the need for citizens to vent grievances. To understand the relationship of these factors to social media repression, this research conducts a comparative process-tracing case study of Iran, Turkey, and Venezuela from 2004 to 2017, using a hypothesis-testing approach. It concludes with discussion of the findings for the nature of regime response to the role of social media in protest.
KEYWORDS: Internet; Media; Protest; Authoritarian; Iran; Turkey; Venezuela; Comparative; Case-Study

p.43 Investigation of Constant Volume and Constant Flux Initial Conditions on Bidensity Particle-Laden Slurries on an Incline
Dominic Diaz*, Jessica Bojorquez, Joshua Crasto, Margaret Koulikova, Tameez Latib, Aviva Prins, Andrew Shapiro, Clover Ye, David Arnold, Claudia Falcon, Michael R. Lindstrom, & Andrea L. Bertozzi
Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
ABSTRACT: Particle-laden slurries are pervasive in both natural and industrial settings, whenever particles are suspended or transported in a fluid. Previous literature has investigated the case of a single species of negatively buoyant particles suspended in a viscous fluid. On an incline, three distinct regimes emerge depending on the particle concentration and inclination angle: settled (where particles settle and there is a pure fluid front), well-mixed (where particle concentration is constant throughout), and ridged (where a particle-rich ridge leads the flow). Recently, the same three regimes were also found for constant volume two species bidensity slurries. We extend the literature on bidensity slurries by presenting results on constant volume and a new type of initial condition: constant flux, where slurry is pumped onto the incline at a constant rate. We present front positions of the slurries and compare them to theoretical predictions. In addition, height profiles (film thicknesses) are also presented for the constant flux case, showing the distinct behavior of the ridged regime. We find that for constant flux conditions the settled regime forms for small particle volume fractions and inclination angles while the ridged regime forms for large corresponding values. Intermediate values of these two parameters are shown to produce a well-mixed regime.
KEYWORDS: Thin Films; Particle-Laden Flow; Multiphase Fluids; Interfacial Flows; Particle Segregation

p.59 A Monte Carlo Simulation Study on the Power of Autocorrelation Tests for ARMA Models
Zachary Wenning* & Emily Valenci
Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
ABSTRACT: It is often the case when assessing the goodness of fit for an ARMA time series model that a portmanteau test of the residuals is conducted to assess residual serial correlation of the fitted ARMA model. Of the many portmanteau tests available for this purpose, one of the most famous and widely used is a variant of the original Box-Pierce test, the Ljung-Box test. Despite the popularity of this test, however, there are several other more modern portmanteau tests available to assess residual serial autocorrelation of the fitted ARMA model. These include two portmanteau tests proposed by Monti and Peña and Rodríguez. This paper focuses on the results of a power analysis comparing these three different portmanteau tests against different fits of ARMA – derived time series, as well as the behavior of the three different test statistics examined when applied to a real-world data set. We confirm that for situations in which the moving average component of a fitted ARMA model is underestimated or when the sample size is small, the portmanteau test proposed by Monti is a viable alternative to the Ljung-Box test. We show new evidence that the Peña and Rodríguez may also be a viable option for testing for residual autocorrelation for data with small sample sizes.
KEYWORDS: Time Series; Monte Carlo; ARMA Models; Power; Simulation; Autocorrelation Tests; Portmanteau Tests; Monti; Ljung-Box; Peña and Rodríguez

p.69 Evaluating the Effects of Bisphenols F and S with Respect to Bisphenol A on Primordial Germ Cell Migration in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Using Immunofluorescent Microscopy
Siti Sarah Safura*, George Roba, & Edward Freeman
Department of Biology, St. John Fisher College, NY
ABSTRACT: Primordial Germ Cell (PGC) migration occurs in early embryonic development and is highly conserved across taxa. PGC migration occurs within the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) in zebrafish, making the organism an efficient model for observing the migration pathway. Proper PGC migration is necessary for normal gonad development and, in some species, sex determination. Disruption of this process leads to defects in gonad formation and abnormal sex determination and differentiation. Studies show that endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) disrupt PGC migration in zebrafish. BPA is an estrogenic compound that has been linked to a variety of human diseases, including various cancers, diabetes, reproductive disorders, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. It is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds worldwide, as it used to make polycarbonate plastics. Many studies provide evidence of the harmful effects of BPA on living organisms. In response, manufacturers have started to use replacements such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). However, due to their structural similarity, it is likely that BPF and BPS are just as harmful to organisms as BPA. In this study, we use antibody staining and immunofluorescence microscopy to confirm that BPA exposure results in abnormal PGC migration in zebrafish embryos, as previously studied, and to illustrate that BPF and BPS exposure results in similar PGC migration defects.
KEYWORDS: Zebrafish; Zebrafish Embryos; Primordial Germ Cells; PGC Migration; Gonad Development; Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals; Bisphenol A; Bisphenol S; Bisphenol F; Sex Determination

p.79 Exposure and Loss of Environmental Enrichment Mediates Ethanol Consumption in Adolescent Female Rats
Natalie Lipari*a, Max Baronb, & Joshua A. Pecka
aPsychology Department, State University of New York at Cortland, Cortland, NY
bPsychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Harbor, MI
ABSTRACT: Alcohol use among adolescent females has significantly increased in the United States with young women drinking alcohol at the same rate as young men. One potential treatment strategy that could help sustain alcohol abstinence is Environmental Enrichment (EE). Environmental enrichment is a process concerning the stimulation of the brain by one’s physical and social surrounding, which promotes non-drug reinforcement alternatives (e.g. voluntary exercise) supporting drug abstinence. Thus, the primary focus of this study was to investigate the effect of EE on ethanol (ETOH) abstinence in adolescent female rats. All adolescent female rats, starting on postnatal day 30, had 24-h access to 2%, then 4%, and then 6% ethanol concentrations. At the end of the four weeks, the environmental conditions were switched (EE→NEE and NEE→EE) and the 6% ethanol measure was repeated. We found that EE significantly reduced ethanol consumption for adolescent female rats compared to controls. Further, the removal of EE opportunities resulted in a significant increase in ethanol consumption. Collectively, the results suggest that access to enriched life conditions are important in facilitating alcohol abstinence in adolescent female rats.
KEYWORDS: Adolescent Females; Alcohol Consumption; Environmental Enrichment; Alcohol Use Disorder; Treatment Strategy; Alcohol Abstinence; Ethanol; Adolescent Female Rats


AJUR Volume 16 Issue 2 (September 2019)

Click on the link below to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for

AJUR Volume 16 Issue 2 (September 2019)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

Classifying Lensed Gravitational Waves in the Geometrical Optics Limit with Machine Learning
Amit Jit Singh, Ivan S.C. Li, Otto A. Hannuksela, Tjonnie G.F. Li, & Kyungmin Kim
ABSTRACT: Gravitational waves are theorized to be gravitationally lensed when they propagate near massive objects. Such lensing effects cause potentially detectable repeated gravitational wave patterns in ground- and space-based gravitational wave detectors. These effects are difficult to discriminate when the lens is small and the repeated patterns superpose. Traditionally, matched filtering techniques are used to identify gravitational-wave signals, but we instead aim to utilize machine learning techniques to achieve this. In this work, we implement supervised machine learning classifiers (support vector machine, random forest, multi-layer perceptron) to discriminate such lensing patterns in gravitational wave data. We train classifiers with spectrograms of both lensed and unlensed waves using both point-mass and singular isothermal sphere lens models. As the result, classifiers return F1 scores ranging from 0:852 to 0:996, with precisions from 0:917 to 0:992 and recalls ranging from 0:796 to 1:000 depending on the type of classifier and lensing model used. This supports the idea that machine learning classifiers are able to correctly determine lensed gravitational wave signals. This also suggests that in the future, machine learning classifiers may be used as a possible alternative to identify lensed gravitational wave events and to allow us to study gravitational wave sources and massive astronomical objects through further analysis.
KEYWORDS: Gravitational Waves; Gravitational Lensing; Geometrical Optics; Machine Learning; Classification; Support Vector Machine; Random Tree Forest; Multi-layer Perceptron

Cost, Quality, and Access of Healthcare in Piura, Peru
Julia B. Griffin & Elaina F. Osterbur
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to investigate the patient perceptions on the cost, quality, and access of health care services in Piura, Peru. Although one of the largest cities in Peru, Piura has one of the lowest densities of health care workers in the country which greatly impacts the population’s ability to receive medical treatment. Lack of financial resources and health literacy, among other health disparities exist. Modeled after CAHPSâ Health Plan Adult Commercial Survey 5.0 and the Patient Satisfaction Survey, a forty-four question English and Spanish survey was created with questions to study healthcare variables. As a correlational study with convenience sampling, the survey was administered to both patients and medical providers in eight city health centers. Over a period of twelve days, 107 surveys were collected. After eliminating subjects who did not meet the study criteria, 92 patients and 13 medical providers were included in the study. Findings from medical providers are not reported because of the small sample size. The results of this study suggests that 32% of subjects do not have health insurance, 24% of subjects rated their healthcare received as average, 18% of participants rated their healthcare as the best possible on a scale of zero to ten, and 29% of subjects had to wait an average of seven days for access to healthcare services when care is urgent. The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the Peruvian healthcare system and educate the Piura community and the Parish Santísimo Sacramento as they continue to improve and expand their health care services.
KEYWORDS: Cost; Quality; Access; Healthcare; Piura; Peru; Satisfaction; Parroquia Santísimo Sacramento; EsSalud; SIS; MINSA
APPENDICES: AJUR_Vol_16_Issue_2_September_2019_p17_appendices

The Effectiveness of Debt Relief: Assessing the Influence of the HIPC Initiative and MDRI on Tanzania’s Health Sector
Fernando Lopez Oggier
ABSTRACT: Debt relief initiatives have been part of the international development sphere since the early 1990s. With the launch of the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative in 1996 and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) in 2005 many countries have been able to successfully qualify for debt relief. Tanzania has been one of the primary beneficiaries of debt relief over the years. While empirical evidence demonstrates that the country’s economic growth has been positively impacted by debt relief initiatives, other aspects of human development need to be analyzed to ensure a comprehensive assessment of the HIPC Initiative and the MDRI. This study compiles Tanzania’s health data into a composite indicator to perform a graphical analysis to compare the trends between health outcomes and external debt. The graphical analysis is contextualized through a qualitative analysis of political, economic and health financing literature from the Bank of Tanzania, UNICEF and USAID. The results indicate that there health outcomes improved throughout the whole study’s time period particularly after the HIPC Initiative. The health financing literature also points to increased development expenditure during this period. Nonetheless, the effects of debt relief seem to diminish in the long-term due to fluctuations in external donors and logistical barriers to budget execution. Tanzania also continues to face socio-economic and geographic disparities in health outcomes and funding. Some of the literature also states that the country’s weak system of checks and balances and the lack of robust institutions could cause opportunistic policy preferences that might not necessarily improve Tanzania’s health outcomes.
KEYWORDS: Child Mortality Rate; Debt Relief; External Debt; Heavily Indebted Poor Country Initiative; International Monetary Fund; Life Expectancy; Maternal Mortality Rate; Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative; Official Development Aid; Prevalence of Undernourishment

The Association of TAS1R2 to Dental and Cardiovascular Health
Joseph Keryakos, Annika van Oosbree, & Alyssa Marie Kiesow
ABSTRACT: Despite brushing and/or flossing their teeth twice daily, many people are still susceptible to dental cavities and tooth decay. This research investigates the genetic and cardiovascular health behind this phenomenon. Two gene variants related to taste pathways, taste 1 receptor member 2 (TAS1R2) and taste 2 receptor member 38 (TAS2R38), were tested on the DNA of 20 students at Northern State University (10 males and 10 females). In concert with genetic screening, tooth impressions were taken of the participants’ upper and lower jaws along with salivary pH, heart rates, and blood pressures. Participants’ cavities and fillings were counted and their gums examined for inflammation. Results showed that seven out of 10 males and two out of 10 females had the gene variant (TAS1R2). Students with this gene variant had an average salivary pH of 5.22—significantly lower than the salivary pH for the other non-carrier students (p < 0.05). These students also had smaller-sized tooth enamel, with none showing a size greater than one millimeter (x̄ = 0.84 millimeters). Students not expressing the gene variant had fewer cavities than those expressing the TAS1R2 gene variant (i.e., one of the regions amplified). Four of the males and both of the females that carried the gene variant also showed signs of swollen gums, possibly contributing to heart disease in the future. Blood pressures and heart rates for the carriers were statistically significant (p < 0.05), showing higher pressures and faster rates compared to non-carriers; meanwhile, all of the non-carriers had normal pressures and rates. Further, body mass index was lower among individuals without the gene variant. The results this limited study indicate that the TAS1R2 gene variant may play a role in cavity development and impact (or indicate poor) cardiovascular health, highlighting the importance of understanding the role of gene variants with regard to risk of tooth decay and gum and heart disease.
KEYWORDS: Dental cavities; Tooth decay; Gum and heart disease; Taste pathway gene; Gene variant; Blood pressure; Heart rate; Salivary pH; Tooth enamel

Body Image and Self-Esteem in Female College Students of Healthy Weight and Excess Weight: The Mediating Role of Weight Stigma
Carlie Smith, Jennifer Becnel, & Amanda Williams
ABSTRACT: Emerging adulthood is an important transition in which the development of lifelong behaviors emerge. Recent research suggests that women in college are particularly vulnerable to poor body image and low self-esteem. This is also a time of possible weight gain as individuals learn to eat and exercise on their own. These are important as body mass index (BMI) influences how women feel about themselves and how others view them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the associations between body image, self-esteem, and weight stigma among female college students of healthy weight and excess weight. Participants (n=124; 83% White) were recruited to take a short survey administered online through Facebook advertisements and snowball sampling. Results reveled poorer body image and more experiences with weight stigma among individuals with excess weight. Additionally, weight stigma fully mediated the relationship between BMI and self-esteem as well as BMI and body image. Results were consistent with previous research noting the stigma and stereotypes associated with excess weight. Future work should examine these relationships in more diverse groups to identify those at greatest risk for negative self-concept for intervention.
KEYWORDS: Weight; Weight Stigma; Self-Esteem; Body Image; College Students; Women

After Hurricanes Irma and Matthew: Living Shorelines Stabilize Sediments
Taryn Chaya, Jessica Veenstra, & Melissa Southwell
ABSTRACT: Constructed intertidal oyster reefs, an example of a “living shoreline”, can protect against erosion and loss of habitat, but can they prevent erosion during high-energy storm events such as hurricanes? Oyster reefs were constructed in 2012 within the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve in Northeast Florida to stabilize the shoreline sediment and prevent erosion of an archeological site. Sediment cores were collected behind constructed oyster reefs before and after hurricanes Matthew (2016) and Irma (2017) to study changes in sediment particle size due to these high-energy storms. Pre-hurricane data were collected in 2016 from three different constructed reefs, as well as three control sites where no reef was present. Pre-hurricane sediment profiles behind the constructed reefs consisted of finer sediments, ~36% silt and clay, in the surface ~10-12 cm, with decreasing silt and clay and increasing sand content as depth increased. This was different than the sediment from the control sites with ~4% silt and clay in all depths sampled. Like the sediment profiles before the high energy storms, the post-hurricane sediment data showed a clear layer of finer sediment ~10-12 cm over coarser sediment. Although they were high-energy storms, the storms did not appear to significantly affect the sediment behind the constructed oyster reefs. Sediment profiles remained consistent after these storms but may not remain undisturbed during the next storm without some intervention because the oyster reefs have been degrading.
KEYWORDS: Oyster Restoration; Living Shorelines; Hurricanes; Coastal Erosion; Sedimentation; Salt Marsh