AJUR Volume 17 Issue 4 (March 2021)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 4 (March 2021)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. Factors Controlling Coral Skeletal U/Ca Ratios with Implications for their Use as a Proxy for Past Ocean Conditions
Emily Patterson, Spencer Eanes, Penelope Lancrete, Anne Gothmann*a, & Paul Robackb
aDepartment of Environmental Studies and Physics, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN
bDepartment of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN
ABSTRACT: Seawater temperature, salinity and carbonate chemistry have been shown to influence the uranium/calcium (U/Ca) ratios of scleractinian coral skeletons. This apparent sensitivity of U/Ca to multiple environmental parameters calls into question whether there is one environmental variable that most strongly controls coral U/Ca, and whether U/Ca can be straightforwardly applied as a paleoenvironmental proxy due to the tendency of environmental variables to covary in space and time. In this study, uranium concentration data from an existing compilation of tropical scleractinian coral U-series measurements is paired with environmental data from the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) to examine the sensitivity of coral skeletal U/Ca to multiple seawater properties including temperature, salinity, pH, and saturation state. First, univariate linear regressions and multiple linear regressions were used to compare relationships between uranium and environmental parameters in the dataset with relationships observed in previous studies. Next, principal component analysis and regularized regression were used to identify the most likely predictors of coral U/Ca in order to create a multiple linear regression model. Results indicate that pH, Ω, alkalinity, and temperature are all significant predictors of uranium concentrations in coral. The magnitude and strength of relationships between U/Ca and environmental variables also differ across different genera. Seawater properties with strong correlations and small ranges make interpretation of these results difficult. However, results of these analyses indicate that U/Ca is dependent on multiple environmental parameters and that previously developed univariate regressions may be insufficient to characterize the full range of variables that influence coral [238U].
KEYWORDS: Coral; Paleoceanography; Proxy Calibration; Uranium; Multiple Linear Regression; Regularized Regression; Environmental Change; Oceanographic Databases

p.19. Analyzing Trends in Water Table Elevations at the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, U.S.A.
Anna Stockstad*a, Ella Gray,a Stephen Sebestyenb, Nina Lanyc, Randall Kolkab, & Marcella Windmuller-Campionea
aDepartment of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota- Twin Cities, St. Paul, Minnesota
bUSDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, Minnesota
cUSDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Durham, New Hampshire
ABSTRACT: Water table fluctuations in peatlands are closely coupled with the local climate setting and drive critical ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. In Minnesota, USA, peatlands cover ten percent of the surface area, approximately 2.5 million hectares, some of which are actively managed for forest products. To explore the relationship between peatland water tables and precipitation, long-term data (1961 to 2019) were used from the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. Starting in 1961, water table data from seven peatlands, including two types of peatlands (bogs and fens), were measured. We used the Theil-Sen estimator to test for monotonic trends in mean monthly water table elevations for individual peatlands and monthly precipitation. Water levels in bogs were both more variable and had mean water table elevations that were closer to the surface. Individual trends of water table elevations differed among peatlands. Water table elevations increased over time in three of the bogs studied and decreased over time in two of the bogs studied. Trends within fens were notably nonlinear across time. No significant linear trend was found for mean monthly precipitation between 1961 and 2019. These results highlight differences in peatlands types, local physiography, and the importance of understanding how changes in long-term dynamics coupled with changing current conditions will influence the effects of water table fluctuations on ecosystem services. The variability of water table elevations in bogs poses potential difficulties in modeling these ecosystems or creating adaptive management plans.
KEYWORDS: Peatlands; Hydrology; Water tables; Bogs; Fens; Monitoring; Minnesota; Climate Change

p.33. Treatment Outcomes in a Partial Hospital Program for Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Effects of Comorbid Major Depression
Allison Grahama,b*, Douglas R. Terrilla, Simone I. Boyda, Isabel Benjamina, Madeline Warda, & Mark Zimmermana,c
aRhode Island Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Providence, RI
bDepartment of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI
cDepartment of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI
ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have examined the impact of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on social anxiety disorder (SAD), the results have been somewhat mixed. Furthermore, most studies have been conducted in inpatient or outpatient settings. Given the large body of literature that suggests that this particular comorbidity can have negative effects on treatment efficacy and outcomes, it is important to continue to explore its impact. The present study aims to clarify contradictions in the literature and expands on previous studies by examining patients in a partial hospitalization setting. Patients at Rhode Island Hospital with a diagnosis of SAD were compared to those with comorbid SAD and MDD on pre-treatment and post-treatment measures of anxiety and depression. The results indicated that while the comorbid group showed significantly less improvement post-treatment on anxiety symptoms and constructs related to remission from depression, they did not show significantly less improvement on depression symptoms. The implications of these results for clinical practice are discussed.
KEYWORDS: Social Anxiety Disorder; Major Depressive Disorder; Comorbid Anxiety Disorders; Comorbid Mood Disorders; Treatment Outcomes; Partial Hospitalization Program

p.41. Evaluation of Physical Activity Participation, Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy for Employees Participating in Exercise Is Medicine® On Campus Program
Maximilian Gastelum-Morales*, Lisa J. Leininger ͣ, Joanna L. Morrissey, Ryan Luke ͣ, & Mark DeBelisoc
ͣ Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Monterey Bay, Marina, CA
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Green Bay, WI
cDepartment of Kinesiology and Outdoor Recreation, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT, United States
ABSTRACT: Exercise Is Medicine® On Campus (EIM-OC) is a worldwide initiative from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) to promote physical activity (PA) at universities. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) implemented this initiative in Fall 2019 with offerings to students and employees. For employees, an “Introduction to Resistance Training Class” was offered. Participants attended classes two times per week, with the sessions lasting approximately fifty minutes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EIM-OC employee Introduction to Resistance Training class for its effectiveness on increasing PA, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. The research design was pre-post, with participants completing online questionnaires before and after the course. The Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPQ), Resistance Training Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy Questionnaire, and Self-Efficacy and the Maintenance of Exercise Participation in Older Adults Questionnaire were included. The training class had a total of 14 female participants, 12 of which completed the pre- and post-questionnaires.There was a significant increase (t=-3.2, df=11, p=.004) in resistance training self-efficacy score following the course (M=3.52±1.03 versus M=4.31±.56). Resistance training outcome expectancy score was also statistically significant (t=-2.54, df=11, p=.01) following the course (M=4.48±.53 versus M=4.71±.37). There were increases in strenuous exercise days, physical activity scores, and future resistance training self-efficacy, although they were not statistically significant. The results of this study indicate that employee exercise classes, as part of the EIM-OC initiative, can be effective in increasing resistance training self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. These indicators are important for individuals to maintain lifelong PA therefore future programming and research on EIM-OC should continue.
KEYWORDS: Exercise Is MedicineⓇ-On Campus; Resistance Training; Physical Activity; Exercise; Worksite Health Promotion Program; Self-Efficacy; Outcome Expectancy; Employees; California State University, Monterey Bay

p.49. Axisymmetric Thermal Finite Element Analysis of Effects of Intraocular Projector in the Human Eye
John A. Stark*a, Craig D. Fosterb, & Charles Yuc
aDepartment of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL
bDepartment of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL
cDepartment of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, CA
ABSTRACT: Millions of people worldwide live with corneal opacity which continues to be one of the leading causes of blindness. Corneal opacity is treatable. However, the surgical methods for treating this condition, such as corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, have many complications. The use of an intraocular projector is a promising approach to treat corneal blindness. Like any device using electrical power, an intraocular projection device produces heat, which could potentially damage eye tissue. Australian and international standards state that there cannot be an increase of temperature of 2 °C caused by an implanted device. In order to determine if these standards are met, a 2D axisymmetric thermal analysis of the projector in the human eye is conducted in ANSYS Workbench. With the projector operating at its maximum wattage, our analysis shows that an air gap extension within the projector will help maintain the temperature increase below 2 °C.
KEYWORDS: Finite Element Analysis; Eye; Heat Dissipation; Axisymmetric; Thermal Conductivity; Internal Heat Generation; Corneal Blindness; ANSYS; Intraocular Projector

p.59. Prime Factors and Divisibility of Sums of Powers of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers
Spirit Karcher, Mariah Michael
Department of Mathematics, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA
ABSTRACT: The Fibonacci sequence, whose first terms are f0; 1; 1; 2; 3; 5; : : :g, is generated using the recursive formula Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn with F0 = 0 and F1 = 1. This sequence is one of the most famous integer sequences because of its fascinating mathematical properties and connections with other fields such as biology, art, and music. Closely related to the Fibonacci sequence is the Lucas sequence. The Lucas sequence, whose first terms are f2; 1; 3; 4; 7; 11; : : :g, is generated using the recursive formula Ln+2 = Ln+1 + Ln with L0 = 2 and L1 = 1. In this paper, patterns in the prime factors of sums of powers of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are examined. For example, F2 3n+4 + F2 3n+2 is even for all n 2 N0. To prove these results, techniques from modular arithmetic and facts about the divisibility of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are utilized.
KEYWORDS: Fibonacci Sequence; Lucas Sequence; Modular Arithmetic; Divisibility Sequence

p.71. A Survey of Inhibitors for the Main Protease of Coronaviruses with the Potential for Development of Broad-Spectrum Therapeutics
Alyssa Sanders*a, Samuel Riccib, Sarah Uribea, Bridget Boylea, Brian Nepperb, & Nathaniel Nuccia,b
aDepartment of Molecular & Cellular Biosciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ
bDepartment of Physics & Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ
ABSTRACT: The coronaviruses plaguing humanity in the 21st century share much in common: a spontaneous route of origin from wild animals, a propensity to take human life, and, importantly, a highly conserved set of biological machinery necessary for viral replication. Most recently, the SARS-CoV-2 is decimating economies around the world and has claimed over two million human lives, reminding the world of a need for an effective drug against present and future coronaviruses. To date, attempts to repurpose clinically approved antiviral medications show minimal promise, highlighting the need for development of new antiviral drugs. Nucleotide analog inhibitors are a promising therapeutic candidate, but early data from clinical studies suggests these compounds have limited efficacy. However, novel compounds targeting the main protease responsible for critical steps in viral assembly are gaining considerable interest because they offer the potential for broad-spectrum coronavirus therapy. Here, we review the literature regarding potential inhibitors for the main protease of coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2, analyze receptor-drug interactions, and draw conclusions about candidate inhibitors for future outbreaks. Promising candidates for development of a broad-spectrum coronavirus protease inhibitor include the neuraminidase inhibitor 3K, the peptidomimetic inhibitor 11a and 11b, the α-ketoamide inhibitor 13b, the aldehyde prodrug, and the phosphate prodrug developed by Pfizer. In silico and in vitro analyses have shown that these inhibitors strongly interact with the active site of the main protease, and to varying degrees, prevent viral replication via interactions with the largely conserved active site pockets.
KEYWORDS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; Replicase Polypeptide; Protease; Neuraminidase Inhibitor; Peptidomimetic Inhibitor; α-Ketoamide Inhibitor; Molecular Docking