AJUR Volume 20 Issue 2 (September 2023)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 20 Issue 2 (September 2023) or https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2023.082

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. An Exploratory Study on Student-Athlete Mental Health: Personal and Perceived Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior

Emma McCabe, Sarah DeSordi, Aaron Piepmeier, & Eric Hall


ABSTRACT: Student-athletes are more likely to develop mental health problems than the general population. In addition to schoolwork, social networks, family ties, and financial obligations, collegiate student-athletes are required to attend practices, travel for games, attend athletic events, and perform extracurricular duties. The addition of possible injury, overtraining, burnout, scrutiny from the public and/or the media, and consistent pressure to perform results in athletes playing through both physical injuries and mental health problems. Despite the high number of athletes who report needing mental health support, fewer than half seek out mental health services. Research has identified stigma as one of the largest barriers to mental health help-seeking behavior (HSB). Help-seeking behavior has rarely been studied in relation to the larger body of work on mental health stigma in sport. The purpose of this study was to observe and describe student-athletes’ perceived stigma (e.g., what others think) and personal stigma (e.g., what the individual thinks) in relation to HSB. A sample of n = 20 athletes completed an online Qualtrics Survey, which included Link’s Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale, Mental Health Literacy Scale, Self-Stigma of Seeking Help Scale, Help Seeking Questionnaire, and Student-Athlete Role Behaviors Questionnaire. Results from this study may help develop mental health interventions to improve student-athlete HSB. KEYWORDS: Mental Health; Student-Athlete; Stigma; Help-Seeking Behavior; NCAA; PDDS; MHLS; SSOSH; HSQ; SRBQ

p.13. The Effect of Coastline Concavity on Maximum Storm Surge Height along the US Gulf Coast

Kayleigh Addington & Stephanie Zick


ABSTRACT: Storm surge is the most dangerous component of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs). The growing coastal population highlights the importance of research regarding the atmospheric and geographic factors influencing the maximum storm surge height (MSSH). To date, few studies have investigated the influence of coastline concavity. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that TCs making landfall on a concave coastline will have a higher MSSH than TCs making landfall on a convex coastline. The Colorado State University extended best track dataset includes the radius of 34 kt winds (R34), landfall minimum mean sea level pressure (MSLP), landfall maximum sustained winds, and forward speed of TCs. The storm surge database for the US Gulf Coast provides the location and MSSH for TCs impacting the U.S. Gulf Coast. From this, eleven TCs that meet specific criteria and represent the larger population of Atlantic TCs are selected. The adjusted degree of coastline concavity (ADoC) is calculated for each TC using the law of cosines and 50, 100, and 200 km radius buffers around the point of MSSH. A Mann Whitney U test does not indicate any significant differences between the mean MSSH of TCs making landfall on each coastline type. Additionally, results from a simple linear regression F-test suggest that none of the included parameters have a significant influence on MSSH despite the findings of previous research. Still, the Spearman’s Rho correlation values suggest a weak positive relationship between the ADoC and MSSH. This relationship is significant at the 100 and 200 km buffers, which is consistent with the hypothesis. Results are limited by the small sample size. Future research should use a larger dataset and investigate how each individual storm characteristic affects MSSH. KEYWORDS: Tropical Cyclones; Hurricanes; Storm Surge; Coastal Geography; Coastline Concavity; Gulf of Mexico; Law of Cosines

p.29. Validation of a Computationally Efficient Model of the Mu-Opioid Receptor

Allison Barkdull, Lexin Chen, Akash Mathavan, Karina Martinez-Mayorga, & Coray M. Colina


ABSTRACT: The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is a transmembrane protein and the primary target for pain-modulating drugs. Opioid drugs come with detrimental side-effects such as physical dependence and addiction. However, recent studies show that understanding structural properties and dynamics of MOR may aid in the design of opioid drugs with reduced side-effects. Molecular dynamics simulations allow researchers to study changes in protein conformation at an atomistic level. However, modeling systems including MOR embedded in a lipid bilayer can be computationally expensive. This study evaluates a modeling approach that uses harmonic restraints on the transmembrane regions of MOR to model the rigidity of the lipid bilayer without explicitly simulating lipid molecules, reducing the number of atoms in the simulation. The proposed model allows MOR to be simulated 49% faster than a simulation explicitly including the lipid bilayer. To assess the accuracy of the proposed model, simulations were performed of MOR in a lipid bilayer, the free MOR in water and MOR in water with harmonic restraints applied to all transmembrane residues using NAMD 3.0 alpha and the CHARMM36 force field. Dynamic properties of MOR were shown to be different in each system, with the free MOR having a higher root mean square deviation (RMSD) than MOR with an explicitly modeled lipid bilayer. The systems with harmonic restraint constants of 0.001 kcal/mol/Å2 applied to the transmembrane residues had RMSD values comparable to those in an explicitly modeled lipid bilayer. This study demonstrates that using restraints on the transmembrane residues of MOR is a feasible way of modeling the ligand-free receptor with reduced computational costs. This model could allow the dynamics of MOR in a lipid bilayer environment to be studied more efficiently. KEYWORDS: Molecular Dynamics; Atomistic Simulations; Computational Modeling; Mu-Opioid Receptor; G-Protein Coupled Receptor; Lipid Bilayer, Opioid, Transmembrane Protein

p.45. A Review of Models on Direct Evaporative Cooling

Michael Wilkins & Nelson Fumo


ABSTRACT: Direct evaporative cooling (DEC) is a technology that is continuously expanding into different areas of study. The foundation of this process has been built through expansive research efforts and physical experimental data. The ability to accurately model and predict the performance of DEC systems allows the energy-efficient process to gain traction in HVAC applications, however, the inconsistencies present among research efforts created discontinuities in the reproduction of a system. By reviewing current literature, the discrepancies in the defining methodologies of how DEC systems are defined and predicted can provide insight to future research. This review depicts the different approaches taken in recent research to define the equations that govern the thermodynamic processes, the different materials used in the process, and the models used to predict the performance of DEC systems. By identifying the most common practices in current research, the gaps in literature can be recognized and overcome in further efforts. KEYWORDS: Direct Evaporative Cooling; Evaporative Cooler; Evaporative Cooling Media; HVAC; Cooling Effectiveness

p.57. Semantic Interpretations of Ditransitive Constructions in English

Marcella Jurotich


ABSTRACT: This study addresses claims made by two theories—the Alternative Projection and Verb Sensitive approaches—regarding an interpretation of possession attributed to certain ditransitive constructions. The Alternative Projection approach argues that an interpretation of possession is only available in the double object (DO) pattern expressed by English ditransitive verbs (1a) and is not available in the prepositional (PP) pattern (1b). The Verb Sensitive approach argues that this possession interpretation is either available for both the DO and PP patterns, or for neither pattern, depending on the class of ditransitive verb with which the patterns occur. (1a) The salesperson gave the young farmer the grain mixture. (1b) The salesperson gave the grain mixture to the young farmer. Both approaches posit a possession interpretation of the DO pattern across all ditransitive verbs. This study tests to what degree native English speakers interpret a meaning of possession from the DO and PP patterns through an online survey with 88 participants. Ditransitive verbs from five semantic classes are analyzed to determine if the interpretation of possession varies based on use of the DO or PP pattern (Alternative Projection) or by the semantic class of the verb (Verb Sensitive). The results do not support the Alternative Projection approach. The results suggest partial support for the Verb Sensitive approach, as semantic classes do not entirely follow the pattern predicted by this approach.  Further, judgements reported in this study contradict some judgements reported in the literature, highlighting the importance of quantitative studies in evaluating theoretical claims. KEYWORDS: Ditransitives in English; Ditransitive Verbs; Survey; the Dative Alternation; Semantics; Verb Semantics; Alternative Projection approach; Verb Sensitive approach

p.69. Are Wrist-based Heart Rate Monitors a Valid Tool for Fitness Professionals to Measure Training Intensity During Exercise Classes?

Korey Little, John C. Sieverdes, D. David Thomas, M. Blake Lineberger, Daniel B. Bornsteind, Marco Bergamine, & Wesley D. Dudgeon


ABSTRACT: This article aims to inform personal trainers and group fitness coaches about the validity and utility of wrist-located heart rate (HR) monitors compared to chest-located HR monitors for training purposes. HR from four wrist-based optical sensor HR products (Fitbit Charge HR, Garmin Vivosmart HR, Apple Watch series 1, Mio Fuse) were compared against a Polar H7 chest strap & RS800cx receiver during nine activities. Two researchers visually observed HR during a protocol incorporating resting, standing, a grocery bag carry, and a 6-stage cycle ergometer protocol that reached maximal HR. Pearson’s r and interclass correlations (ICC) in the sample (n=45, mean age=20.22 [SD 2.32]) resulted in the following: Mio Fuse r=.93, ICC=.97; Apple Watch 1 r=.91, ICC=.95; Fitbit Charge HR r=.83, ICC=.91; and Garmin Vivosmart HR r=.74, ICC=.85 (all p’s <.001). Bland-Altman plots showed the lowest bias for the Mio (-3.30 bpm), followed by the Apple Watch (-2.82 (SD:14.6) bpm), Garmin (-2.99 (SD:23.9) bpm) with Fitbit having the highest bias (-8.13 (SD:20.6) bpm). No drift in bias was found for any device in successive HR categories (all p’s >.09). Wrist-based HR monitors were deemed acceptable for fitness classes, though caution should be taken when interpreting any singular visually observed measurement point. KEYWORDS: Smartwatch; Heart Rate Monitoring; Fitness; Fitness Watch; Validity; Exercise; Cycle Ergometer; Training; Intensity

p.79. Retributive Attitudes and Perceptions of Police Use of Excessive Force

Amelia Collins, Sherah L. Basham, & Rick Dierenfeldt


ABSTRACT: Public opinions of police use of force vary widely. Previous studies, however, have framed their examinations around the factors that influence support of police use of force in general, as compared to a focus on excessive force. This study utilized linear regression to examine the relationship between perceptions of police use of excessive force and retributive attitudes. The study employed a sample of 5,527 respondents from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2020 Time Series Survey. Findings indicated that respondents’ perceptions of the frequency of police use of excessive force depend on their retributive attitudes. The more retributive one’s attitude, the less often they perceived the police to use too much force. Similarly, the more conservative one’s political ideology, the less frequently they perceived police used excessive force. Perceptions of police excessive force also vary across demographics. KEYWORDS: Retributiveness; Death Penalty; Police Use of Force; Police Excessive Force

p.87. College Canines: Investigating the Behavioral and Physiological Impacts of Various College-Housing Environments on Companion Dogs

Kaitlyn Willgohs, Jenna Williams, Isabella Crisostomo, Katherine Keck, Crystal Young-Erdos, & Lauren Highfill


ABSTRACT: Companion animals are becoming a more familiar sight on college campuses, and they are often viewed as an essential element of wellness by students and institutions of higher education. While previous studies have investigated the behavioral and physiological impacts of bringing a pet to campus on the owners, impacts on the pets themselves have yet to be explored. Previous studies do suggest, however, that when dogs are left alone, they display more anxiety-related behaviors such as barking, destruction, lip-licking, body shaking, and higher levels of alertness. The present study investigated the difference in anxiety-related behaviors between on-campus dwelling dogs (n = 18) and off-campus dwelling dogs (n = 12) when exposed to a novel environment, and the physiological baseline of the dogs. Specifically, a saliva sample was collected from each dog before they were placed into a novel room for three minutes and their behavior was coded. Overall, there were no significant differences found between the two groups in either the anxiety-related behaviors observed or salivary cortisol levels. The implications of our findings for campus dogs will be discussed. KEYWORDS: Companion Animals; Dogs; Behavior; Cortisol; Higher Education; Dog Welfare; Service Animals; Animal-Assisted Interventions; Student Mental Health