AJUR Volume 17 Issue 2 (September 2020)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 7 Issue 2 (September 2020)

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. Bacillus cereus & Bacillus pumilus Harvested from a Copper Roof Inhibit the Growth of Other Microorganisms
Alison Stiller, Ashley Fink, & David Mitchell
ABSTRACT: Bacteria growing under the effects of unique selective pressures have distinct adaptations allowing them to survive. Copper surfaces present challenges for bacterial survival because ions dissolve from the surfaces and disrupt cell membranes, thus inhibiting bacterial growth. In this study, the copper roof of Simons Hall in Collegeville, Minnesota was sampled for bacterial species during November 2018. Bacteria were isolated and grown in culture, and zones of inhibition were identified surrounding three of the bacterial colonies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify two of the bacteria samples as Bacillus cereus and a third sample as Bacillus pumilus. Bacilli are large, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria commonly found in diverse environments. They are endospore-forming aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Initial experiments indicated that all three Bacillus strains had the ability to inhibit the growth of three environmental microorganisms. Results from growth curve experiments depicted inhibitory effects on environmental microorganisms at all stages of the growth curve, which is contrary to the prediction that the inhibitory behavior would appear at one specific period of the growth curve. Additional experiments involved plating isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus with laboratory samples of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes to further understand the effectiveness of B. cereus and B. pumilus at inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms. These findings support previous studies and suggest that Bacillus are capable of inhibiting or killing other organisms. Further research will be conducted to illuminate the inhibitory mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic possibilities.
KEYWORDS: Bacteria; Copper; Resistance; Growth Curve; Inhibition; Bacillus; Bacteriocin; Antimicrobial Peptides

p. 13. An Assessment of Sleep Duration and Determinants of Health in a Cross-Sectional Sample of Gynecologic Cancer Survivors in Los Angeles County
Ma’at Hembrick, Makala E. Conner, & Heather P. Tarleton
ABSTRACT: Cancer survivors have an increased risk of treatment-related deficits in physical health and low health-related quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, a health questionnaire was mailed to women from the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program aged 45-70 and diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer in 2005-2014. Of the 5,941 surveys with valid postal addresses, 586 (10%) were completed and returned. The average age of respondents was 66 years old, and 36% identified as non-white. Non-white respondents were less likely to have a college degree (p<0.001), more likely to sleep for less than seven hours each night (p<0.001), experience bodily pain (p<0.001), and have a diagnosis of cervical cancer (p=0.002), when compared to white respondents. Health behaviors and determinants were examined across cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cases. Cervical cancer survivors reported sleeping less than 7 hours per night, on average (p=0.015). Race was associated with sleep duration among endometrial (p=0.002) and ovarian (p=0.003) cancer survivors. Menopausal status was associated with the relationship between race and sleep duration (p<0.001). Depression was inversely related to sleep duration (p = 0.022) but was not associated with race, menopausal status, time since treatment, physical activity, or cancer type. Postmenopausal cervical cancer survivors reported a moderate concern about fall risk compared to their premenopausal counterparts (p=0.048). Physical activity levels increased as time since treatment increased (p=0.003) regardless of cancer type. Race, menopausal status, depression, and cancer type impacted the sleep duration.
KEYWORDS: Health Disparities; Sleep Duration; Depression; Gynecologic Cancers; Survivorship Care

p.27. An Unlikely Symbiosis: Science and Law
Evan Miller
ABSTRACT: Science has historically held a position of high regard in society. Science is intimately connected to law. These disciplines meet in the courtroom. Due to the nature of civil and criminal disputes in the United States, litigators retain expert witnesses to explicate nuanced subjects, including science. Unfortunately, the common law system has not always favored sound science. This paper examines how science and law can work in concert to benefit all people. Some feel that scientists should simply educate courtrooms, but further scrutiny questions the feasibility of this approach. Understanding the sociology of scientific knowledge elucidates this debate and is applied to the forensic sciences. Science and law have the capacity to improve the human condition and increase equity among all people.
KEYWORDS: Science Communication; Expert Witnesses; Science; Public Perception; Law; Misinformation

p.35. Microfibers in Mytilus species(Mollusca, Bivalvia)from Southern California Harbors, Beaches, and Supermarkets
Chloe Mankin & Andrea Huvard
ABSTRACT: Plastic microfibers are an emerging threat to terrestrial and aquatic habitats worldwide. They are equivalent in size to planktonic organisms, making them available to a range of invertebrates. Bivalve mollusks can ingest and accumulate plastics via digestion and adherence to soft tissue. We determined the frequency and characteristics of microfiber pollution from wild Mytilus californianus and farmed Mytilus edulis populations that were collected from southern California harbors, beaches, and supermarkets (n=4 per site). Mussel organic matter was dissected using 30% H2O2. After adding a saline solution to separate the fibers, the liquid was filtered by vacuum filtration. The remaining fibers were examined with a magnification of 1~8x. In this short-term survey, the abundance of microfibers by sample and by shell length showed a significantdifference between the harbor and beach sites. However, there was not a significant difference between the wild and farmed mussels examined. This study revealed widespread microfiber pollution and uptake by mussels in these locations and reinforces how bivalves can be used as a bioindicator of microfiber pollution.
KEYWORDS: Microplastic; Microfiber; Mytilus; Biomonitoring; Bivalvia; Seafood; Human Health

 p.45. A Brief History and Overview of Existential-Phenomenological Psychology
Christopher Zieske
ABSTRACT: This article surveys the background and theory of the existential-phenomenological approach to psychology, with a particular focus on its reception in the United States. The article begins with a discussion of what exactly existential-phenomenological psychology is, including the theories underlying this approach and its basic practices. The article then discusses how the approach developed, including its roots in the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology, its first appearances in Europe, its globalization, and finally its arrival in the U.S. The article then discusses struggles that the existential-phenomenological movement in psychology is currently facing and the concerns of those involved in the movement for its future. Finally, the article closes on a summary of all the information presented as well as of the contributions to the field of psychology that it and the existential-phenomenological movement can make.
KEYWORDS: Existentialism; Phenomenology; Psychology; United States; Existential Psychology; Phenomenological Psychology; Existential Psychotherapy; Philosophy of Psychology