AJUR Volume 19 Issue 4 (March 2023)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 19 Issue 4 (March 2023) or https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2023.069

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Society

Emma Johnson, Eloy Parrilla, & Austin Burg
ABSTRACT: Every day, artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more prevalent as new technologies are presented to the public with the intent of integrating them into society. However, these systems are not perfect and are known to cause failures that impact a multitude of people. The purpose of this study is to explore how ethical guidelines are followed by AI when it is being designed and implemented in society. Three ethics theories, along with nine ethical principles of AI, and the Agent, Deed, Consequence (ADC) model were investigated to analyze failures involving AI. When a system fails to follow the models listed, a set of refined ethical principles are created. By analyzing the failures, an understanding of how similar incidents may be prevented was gained. Additionally, the importance of ethics being a part of AI programming was demonstrated, followed by recommendations for the future incorporation of ethics into AI. The term “failure” is specifically used throughout the paper because of the nature in which the events involving AI occur. The events are not necessarily “accidents” since the AI was intended to act in certain ways, but the events are also not “malfunctions” because the AI examples were not internally compromised. For these reasons, the much broader term “failure” is used. KEYWORDS: Ethics; Artificial Intelligence; Agent-Deed-Consequence (ADC) Model; Principles of Artificial Intelligence; Virtue Ethics; Deontology; Consequentialism; AI Systems

p.13. The By-Product of Ozone from Electrostatic Air Cleaners

Giovanni Cerrato & Nelson Fumo
ABSTRACT: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) contributes to the health and comfort of people living and working indoors. Poor IAQ can be linked to indoor and outdoor sources of contaminants. One recent solution for improving IAQ is the use of Electrostatic (ES) Air Cleaning technology. An ES air cleaner can be installed in an heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system where it pre-filters large dust particles and shocks smaller particles into a collection tray. However, ES air cleaners have been known to give off ozone as a by-product, which is, itself, an air contaminant. Ozone is found outdoors as product of sunlight combining nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds generated from man-made pollution. Indoor ozone concentration will depend on the introduction of outdoor ozone indoors through natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, and infiltration through the building’s envelope (in order of importance). Two different ES air cleaners, A and B, were installed in the air conditioning system of research House #2 of the TRANE Residential Heating and Cooling Research Lab at the University of Texas at Tyler. A series of ozone experiments were conducted, which included measuring the baseline ozone levels at the research houses with different levels of insulation, observing the increase in ozone due to the powering on of mechanical ventilation, and observing the increase in ozone due to the powering on of the installed ES air cleaners. The baseline ozone levels observed in research house #2, whose envelope is more tightly insulated, was found to be lower than in research house #1 whose envelope is less tightly insulated. With regards to mechanical ventilation, an increase in ozone levels were seen in addition to an even higher increase in ozone levels when the ES air cleaners were powered on in tandem. In terms of the single contribution of the ES air cleaners in raising indoor ozone levels, the data shows that although the ES air cleaners increased the ozone concentration in the house, the levels are not of concern as they were less than the FDA limit on indoor ozone generation. KEYWORDS: Indoor Air Quality; Ozone; Electrostatic Air Cleaner; Infiltration; Mechanical Ventilation; HVAC; Pollutant; Indoor Contaminant

p.31. Student Perceptions of Instructor-Student Rapport and Motivation In Hybrid Courses During COVID-19

Bianca S. Candelaria & Meredith L. Clements
ABSTRACT: The relationship between instructors and their students is essential for developing a classroom climate where students feel motivated to learn. The current study surveyed 658 undergraduate students to examine the relationship between instructor-student rapport and motivation in online and face-to-face classes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicated (1) students experienced more rapport with their instructors during face-to-face classes compared to their online classes, (2) students perceived their motivation was greater during face-to-face classes than in online classes, and (3) there was a significant positive relationship between instructor-student rapport and student motivation in both online and face-to-face classes. This study’s findings lend further support to research that emphasizes the importance of creating a sense of community in online classes, where students feel connected to their instructors and, consequently, motivated to learn. KEYWORDS: Instructor-Student Rapport; Motivation; Hybrid Courses; COVID-19; Online Learning

p.41. “The Strong, Silent Type”: Analyzing the Portrayal of the Cost of Masculine Gender Performances in The Sopranos

Holly Taylor & Anna Curtis
ABSTRACT: Media portrayals of the “strong, silent type” reinforce the expectation that men should not demonstrate or even acknowledge their emotions. This trope, however, reflects more significant societal norms around masculine practices that can have profoundly negative impacts on individual men as well as those around them. Emotional compression (or modern stoicism) is fundamentally different from emotional repression. Emotional compression practices can allow men to process their feelings privately and then communicate their feelings clearly without the distortion of uncontrolled bursts of emotion. The treatment of mental health and masculinity in Season 5 of The Sopranos “holds up a mirror” to the costs of emotional repression for men as part of masculine gender performances. The show highlights, sometimes quite brutally, the costs of emotional repression to men and the people around them. In doing so, the content of the show implies that therapy could help men learn to face their feelings and alleviate their suffering as well as that of their families, though only if men are willing to face the feelings of vulnerability that come with having emotions. KEYWORDS: Stoicism; Alexithymia; Hegemonic masculinity; Emotional repression; Mental health; Gender performances

p.53. A Review of the Effect of Estrogen on Immune Efficacy in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) with Comparisons to Human and Murine Homologs

Michael S. Chembars & Lindsey C. Stevenson
ABSTRACT: A review was conducted on current research surrounding the effect of estrogen, and the estrogen receptor, on immune development. Estrogen can regulate many processes and genes throughout immune development, from modulating complement activation and regulating genes crucial for hematopoiesis, to elevating toll-like receptor gene expression. Estrogen has also been shown to have a pronounced effect on regulating certain cancers through inducing macrophage infiltration. It has also been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of microRNAs that are important for proper immune development. A greater understanding of this hormone’s effect gained through the zebrafish model can lead to the development of better practices to improve both human and ecological health. Contemporary reviews typically examine the effect of estrogen-like compounds (oftentimes referred to as estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds) on a sequestered part of immune system development. A distinct lack of cohesion exists in combining contemporary and past reports of the effects of estrogen on various aspects of immune system development in zebrafish. This review serves to fill that gap in knowledge, and to provide a gateway for other researchers interested in this topic. KEYWORDS: Zebrafish; Immune development; Zebrafish immunology; Estrogen; Estrogen receptor; Autoimmunity; Altered signaling; Hematopoiesis