AJUR Volume 19 Issue 1 (June 2022)

Click on this link to download the full high-definition interactive pdf for AJUR Volume 19 Issue 1 (June 2022) or https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2022.053

Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.

p.3 Myrica cerifera, a Medicinal Plant of the Lumbee Tribe, has Antibacterial and Nematicidal Properties

Ashley Edwards, Kazhmiri Deberry, Hannah Mariani, Darian H. Taylor, Nicholas J. Cochran, Ana C. Barrios Sosa, Andrea Regan Scott, R. Thomas Williamson, Cornelia Tirla, Conner Sandefur, & Courtney Carroll Alexander


ABSTRACT: Currently threatening the world of medicine is a growing number of antibiotic-resistant diseases. More specifically, bacteria and nematodes have gained resistance to many of the world’s leading antibiotics and nematicides, respectively, making infections more difficult to treat. Subsequently, these parasitic organisms are able to continue damaging crops and other living organisms like humans without strong interference. To help people and the environment, the development of new and novel antibiotics is vital. Previous research suggests that phytochemicals are a potential solution that will not only help inhibit bacterial growth but also reduce nematode survival. We hypothesized that Myrica cerifera, a plant often used by the Lumbee tribe to treat illness, possesses antibacterial and nematicidal properties. To answer our hypothesis, we began by collecting plant specimens to extract material for biological assays and to subsequently isolate and elucidate the structures of active components. The extract was evaluated for antibacterial properties with an agar diffusion assay and then nematicidal properties using Caenorhabditis elegans. M. cerifera extract was added onto an agar lawn at various doses, and the nematodes’ lifespans were scored. The findings of this study show that extracts of this plant, more commonly referred to as ‘wax myrtle’, do significantly decrease the lifespan of C. elegans and increase the zone of inhibition for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, two compounds were isolated and characterized through chemical extraction, chromatographic separation, and spectroscopic analysis. These compounds could potentially be used to treat bacterial and nematode infections.

KEYWORDS: Antibacterial; Antimicrobial; Caenorhabditis elegans; Plant extract; Myrica cerifera; Nematicidal; NMR; Phytochemical

Supplemental Data for https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2022.054

p.13 State Adoption of Cryptocurrency: a Case Study Analysis of Iran, Russia, and Venezuela

Rose Mahdavieh


ABSTRACT: The emergence of digital currency is becoming prevalent in the age of globalization – specifically, cryptocurrencies, a subset of digital currency that encompass revolutionary technology. This study postulates that certain governments are more prone to adopting cryptocurrencies, especially those seeking to eschew international sanctions and protect corrupt practices. Three comparative case studies focus on countries (Iran, Russia, and Venezuela) that share attributes that result in adopting what has been called “native cryptocurrencies”: corruption, GDP level, economic volatility, and Western sanctions.

KEYWORDS: Cryptocurrency; Blockchain; Political Science; Law; Foreign Sanctions; Government; Iran; Russia; Venezuela

p23. Salinity Affects Wound Healing in Wild Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

Brianna Hurst & Dara N. Orbach


ABSTRACT: Dolphins are often individually identified by unique naturally-acquired markings. Identification becomes difficult when markings heal, or new scars appear. As salt accelerates wound healing in many organisms, the diminishment of scars on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing in varying natural salinities was determined. South Texas contains the only hypersaline lagoon in the USA, located adjacent to hyposaline waters, with genetically distinct populations of dolphins in the two environments. Photographs of dolphin dorsal fins were collected, and scar stability over time was determined and compared by measuring changes in the relative lengths and surfaces of scars. All scars on dolphins in the hypersaline lagoon completely diminished between three to six years, while scars on dolphins in the hyposaline bay ranged in the amount of fading between three to six years. Data from this case study indicate that high salinity may increase the healing speed of wounds on common bottlenose dolphins compared to low salinity, although a larger sample size is needed for robust statistical comparison. Scar diminishment is an important consideration in determining the temporal reliability of photo identification.

KEYWORDS: Bottlenose dolphin; Corpus Christi Bay; healing; hypersaline; Laguna Madre; photo-identification; salinity; scar

p.31 Validation of Accelerometer-Based Estimations of Energy Expenditure During High-Intensity Interval Training

Nicholas Remillard, Marisa Mulvey, Gregory Petrucci Jr, & John R Sirard


ABSTRACT: Accelerometers are used to assess free-living physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE). Energy expenditure estimation algorithms have been calibrated using steady-state exercise. However, most free-living PA is not steady-state. Objective: The purpose of this study was to discern the differences between criterion-measured and accelerometer-estimated EE (kCals) during a non-steady-state High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) session. Methods: Recreationally active adults (N=29, 18-30 years) completed one of two HIIT protocols. Each participant wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the right hip and non-dominant wrist while EE was measured using portable indirect calorimetry. Data analysis was conducted using custom R scripts and bias [95% CIs] to determine significant differences between indirect calorimetry and EE estimates using previously developed algorithms. Results: All accelerometer algorithms underestimated EE during recovery intervals (range; -4.31 to -6.55 kCals) and overestimated EE during work intervals (0.57 to 5.70 kcals). Over the whole HIIT session, only the Hildebrand wrist method was not significantly different from the criterion measured EE. Conclusion: Current ActiGraph EE estimations based on steady-state activities underestimate EE during recovery periods of treadmill HIIT sessions. Future studies should investigate accelerometer signals immediately after high-intensity bouts to more accurately predict EE of the subsequent recovery period.

KEYWORDS: ActiGraph; Accelerometer; HIIT; Indirect calorimetry; EPOC; Energy expenditure; Non-steady state; Calories